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Introduction to Database Concepts and Access. Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate. What is Data?. Data - facts made up of text, numbers, images and sounds - Murray 15000 10

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introduction to database concepts and access

Introduction to Database Concepts and Access

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

what is data
What is Data?
  • Data - facts made up of text, numbers, images and sounds -Murray 15000 10
  • Information is the meaning given to data in the way it is interpreted:Mr Murray is a sales person whose basic annual salary is $15,000 and whose commission rate is 10%
what is a database
What is a Database?
  • A structured collection of related data
  • An address book, a Telephone directory, a Timetable etc.
basic concepts

Name: David MurrayCompany: CCTTel: 01242 227200

Basic Concepts
  • File
    • A set of related records
  • Record
    • A collection of Data about an individual item
  • Field
    • A single item of data common to all records

Name: David MurrayCompany: CCTTel: 01242 227200

Name: David Murray

the telephone directory an example of a database
The Telephone Directory - An Example of a Database

Telephone Directory

Aardvark A.A. Railway Cuttings Cheltenham (01242) 123456

Aardvark S.F. 23 High Street Cirencester (01285) 654321

Aaron A.M. The Paddock Cheltenham (01242) 101010

File Name

Records

Fields

tables and relationships
Tables and Relationships
  • Customermakesorder
  • Orderconsists of order details

make

consist

of

have

deal with

types of relationships

One-to-one

Many-to-many

Types of Relationships
  • One-to-many
  • One-to-one
  • Many-to-many resolved into two one-to-many

One-to-many

why use an electronic database
Why Use an Electronic Database?
  • Speed
  • Ease of Use
  • Versatility
why use access
Why Use Access?
  • Familiar look and feel of Windows
  • Easy to start building simple databases
  • Can build sophisticated systems
  • True relational database
  • Allows prototyping
an introduction to access
An Introduction to Access

Each column represents a field within the record

Each line represents a record within the table

introducing access tools

Customer

Company Name

Address

City

Telephone

Contact Name

Introducing Access Tools

Tables

Employees

Customers

Reports

Forms

Queries

using access as part of microsoft office professional
Using Access as Part of Microsoft Office Professional
  • Microsoft Office Professional includes:
    • Access
    • Word
    • Excel
    • PowerPoint
    • Outlook
starting microsoft access
Starting Microsoft Access
  • Click on “Microsoft Access” in the Start menu

Or if you have set up a shortcut on your Desktop, click on the Access shortcut icon

access concepts terminology and usage

Access - Concepts, Terminology and Usage

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

opening a database
Opening a Database
  • To open a database when you start Access
    • Choose the Open an existing file option on the opening dialog, as illustrated
  • To open a database once you have already started Access- Choose Open from the File menu- OR press CTRL+O- OR click on the Open icon on the toolbar
the access database window
The Access Database Window
  • Icons down the left hand side provide access to all database objects
    • Select the object by clicking the icon
closing a database
Closing a Database
  • To close a database
    • Choose Close from the File menu
    • Or click on the Control menu and select Close
    • Or press CTRL+F4
opening a table
Opening a Table
  • To open a table-Click on the Table icon in the Database window- Select the table you want- Click on the Open icon
the table window
The Table Window
  • A table opened from the database window appears as a datasheet
  • Each row contains a separate record
  • Each column contains a separate field
exploring the table

First record

Previous record

Next record

Last record

Exploring the Table
  • To move through records and fieldsuse TAB, SHIFT+TAB, HOME, END, CTRL+HOME, CTRL+END, PAGE UP, PAGE DOWN, and the arrow keys
  • To move through records
introducing queries
Introducing Queries
  • A means of asking questions of your database
  • Can look across a number of Tables
introducing forms
Introducing Forms
  • A friendlier view of the database
  • Used for data input, menus, display and printing
form design view
Form Design View
  • A form can be viewed in
    • Datasheet view
    • Design view
    • Form View
introducing reports
Introducing Reports
  • Output of information from your database in the form of a printed report
  • Allows you to group and summarize information
  • Can be previewed to the screen prior to printing
  • Can include logos, graphs and drawings
database design and table creation

Database Design and Table Creation

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

design and document your database
Design and Document Your Database
  • A designers best tools are a pencil and paper
    • It is important to plan what you are going to do
  • The sooner you touch the computer the sooner you’ll make a mistake
    • If you don’t plan you will often have to start again
    • Document what you are doing, will you rememberwhat you did in three months time?
questions to ask yourself
Questions To Ask Yourself
  • What do I want?
    • (Outputs)
  • What have I got?
    • (Inputs)
  • What do I need to do to get there?
    • (Process)
define your needs
Define Your Needs
  • Draw a picture
  • Write a description

PRODUCTS

CATEGORIES

SUPPLIERS

ORDERS

C.C. Toys

EMPLOYEES

basic design rules
Basic Design Rules
  • Unique records
  • Unique fields
  • Functionally dependent fields
  • Independent fields
  • No calculated or derived fields
  • Data is broken down into smallest logical parts

RULES

determine relationships

one

many

many

one

Determine Relationships
  • Customer makes many orders: one-to-many
  • Order contains many products and products can appear on many orders: many-to-many
  • Employee belongs to social club: one-to-one
  • Get rid of many-to-many by introducing another table, e.g. Order Details
adding fields to a new table
Adding Fields to a New Table
  • Type Fieldname
  • Choose Data Type
  • Type Description
  • Enter Field Properties
the input mask property
The Input Mask Property
  • Allows you to specify the format of input
  • Useful if input always follows a standard format
    • ZIP or Post codes
    • Telephone Numbers
    • National Insurance codes
  • UK Post code
    • >LL09\ 0LL
  • UK Telephone Number
    • \(99999") "000000
setting a primary key
Setting a Primary Key
  • In Table Design View
    • Select the field you wish to use as the Primary Key
    • Click on Primary Key Button
saving a table
Saving a Table
  • To save a table
    • Choose Save from the File menu
    • Enter a table name if this is the first time you have saved the table
    • Click OK
adding records to a table datasheet
Adding Records to a Table Datasheet
  • Click here and start typing
  • Pressing TAB moves you to the next field
  • When in the last field of the record pressing TAB moves you to the next record
formatting a table

Formatting a Table

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

editing records
Editing Records
  • Many editing operations involve selection
  • There are many ways to select fields and records
  • Record selectors indicate the current status of the record

Current record

Record is selected

Record is being edited

Last (empty) record

selecting records with the mouse
Selecting Records With The Mouse
  • Group of Records
    • Click and drag across record selectors
  • All Records
    • Click here
  • Single Record
    • Click in the record selector
selecting records using the keyboard
Selecting Records Using The Keyboard
  • Single Record
    • Select the record required
    • Select the Edit menu (Alt+E)
    • Choose Select Record (L)
  • All Records
    • Select the Edit menu (Alt+E)
    • Choose Select All Records (A)or
    • Press Ctrl+A
selecting fields with the mouse
Selecting Fields With The Mouse
  • Single Field
    • place the mouse at the beginning of the field (cross pointer) and click once
  • Group of Fields
    • Select 1st field
    • Hold [Shift] + select last fieldor
    • Select and Drag
selecting columns with the mouse
Selecting Columns With The Mouse
  • To select a Field Column
    • Click the button above the column
  • To select Adjacent Columns
    • Click the button above the column and drag across the columns required
selecting fields and columns using the keyboard
Selecting Fields and ColumnsUsing the Keyboard
  • Single Field
    • Use the TAB key until the required field is selected (left to right)
    • Use Shift+TAB (right to Left)
  • Adjacent Fields
    • Select the first field (as above)
    • Hold the Shift key
    • Move in the required direction using the cursor keys
deleting records and fields
Deleting Records and Fields

BEWARE!

  • Select the item(s)
  • Press the Delete key
viewing or setting datasheet default values
Viewing or Setting Datasheet Default Values
  • To set defaults
    • Select the Tools drop down menu
    • Select the Options command
    • Select the Datasheet tab
re ordering columns within a table
Re-ordering Columns Within a Table
  • Select Column to be moved
    • Click on Column button
  • Click and drag to the new location
    • Note black bar
  • Release and the column is moved
re ordering fields in the table
Re-Ordering Fields in the Table
  • In Design View
  • Select the Field to be moved
    • Click on the Field Select button
  • Click and drag to a new location
    • Note black bar
  • Release and the Field is moved
changing column width and row height
Changing Column Width and Row Height
  • Or
    • Click on the column header and right click
    • Select Column Width
    • Enter the column size or
    • Choose Best Fit
  • To size a Column
    • Move the mouse to point between the columns until this symbol is displayed
    • Click and drag to the width required and release
hiding and un hiding columns
Hiding and Un-hiding Columns
  • To hide a Column
    • Select the column(s) you wish to hide
    • Click the right mouse button
    • Select Hide Columns
  • To show a Column
    • Select the Format menu
    • Choose Unhide Columns
    • Select the fields you wish to show
    • Select Close to action choices
freezing columns
Freezing Columns
  • Freezing Columns
    • Allows you to keep selected columns visible on-screen whilst you view columns off the screen
  • To Freeze Columns
    • Select Columns
    • Click the right mouse buttonorSelect the Format menu
    • Click Freeze Columns
  • To Unfreeze Columns
    • Select the Format menu
    • Click Unfreeze All Columns
formatting datasheet cells
Formatting Datasheet Cells
  • Cell Effects include:
    • Horizontal and vertical gridlines
    • Gridline and background colors
    • Cell effects - Flat, Raised and Sunken
changing datasheet fonts
Changing Datasheet Fonts
  • Select Font from the Format drop down menu
copying and moving fields and records
Copying and Moving Fields and Records
  • To copy or move fields and records
    • Select the field or record
    • Copy or move it to the Clipboard
    • Paste from the Clipboard

Cut - move (Ctrl+X)

Copy (Ctrl+C)

Paste (Ctrl+V)

another look at the database window
Another Look at the Database Window
  • From the Database Window you can:
    • Copy, Rename and Delete objects
    • When you copy and paste a table you give it a different name
printing
Printing
  • Choose Print Preview before you print
relationships

Relationships

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

defining relationships
Defining Relationships
  • In order to set relationships you need to carry out three operations
    • Open the Relationships Window
    • Add the Tables
    • Set the Relationships
opening the relationship window
Opening the Relationship Window
  • Open the Database Window
  • Click on the Relationships icon on the toolbar
adding tables to the relationships window
Adding Tables to the Relationships Window
  • Click on the Show Table icon
  • Select the table(s) required in order to build the relationshipclick on Add
making relationships
Making Relationships
  • Click on the field in the primary table and drag to the corresponding field in the secondarytable
  • The Edit Relationshipswindow appears
  • Click on the Create button
referential integrity
Referential Integrity
  • Referential integrity helps you ensure the relationships between records are valid

It ensures you don’t delete related data

editing relationships
Editing Relationships
  • You can:
    • Display all relationships
    • Display only direct relationships
    • Delete a relationship
    • Remove a table from the Relationships window
locating and replacing information

Locating and Replacing Information

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

a simple search
A Simple Search
  • Open the table to search
  • Click the Find icon
  • Enter requirements into the dialog box
  • Select Find First or Find Next
wildcards
Wildcards
  • Wildcard symbols are codes used to allow you to make complex searches for information
  • The Symbols

 - any group of characters in this position

? - any single character in this position

# - any single digit in this position

[ ] - square brackets for inclusions

[! ] - square bracket and exclamation marks for exclusions

finding specific values
Finding Specific Values

Examples:

  • Fr = Fred, Frank, Francis, France, French
  • J?ne = June, Jane
  • 199# = 1991,1992,1993,1994 . . . . . .1999
  • Jo[ha]n = John, Joan
  • Min[!t] = Mine, Mind, Mink ...... but not Mint
find and replace
Find and Replace
  • Click on the Replace command under the Edit drop down menu
sorting records
Sorting Records
  • Quick Sort allows you to quickly sort the table by your selected field
  • The sort can be either ascending or descending
sorting records on more than one field
Sorting Records On More Than One Field

Leftmost columns are sorted first

what is a filter
What is a Filter?
  • Use a filter to temporarily filter out excess information
    • Filter out permanent employees
  • To narrow your focus
    • One customer record
  • Find records with complex criteria
  • Sort records on more than one field and in more than one direction
filtering records by selection
Filtering Records By Selection
  • Use Filters to get a subset of records sharing a common attribute

Filter by Selection

creating simple queries

Creating Simple Queries

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

what are queries
What are Queries?
  • Queries help you select information from tables or queries for a specific purpose
  • You can select fields from records
  • You can select records from a table or query
  • You can select, summarize, update, delete, make new tables and append records to another table
the query grid
The Query Grid

Tables or queries

All

Required

Fields

Ordering

(left to right)

Record Restrictions

Visible

logical operators in criteria
Logical Operators in Criteria
  • When setting criteria for queries you use logical operators to define what you require
    • = (Equals/Same)
    • < ( Less Than/Lower)
    • > (Greater Than/Higher)
    • <= (Less than or equal to)
    • >= (Greater than or equal to)
    • <> (Not equal to)
    • And
    • Or
    • Like
text in criteria wildcards
Text in Criteria - Wildcards
  • Wildcard symbols are codes used to allow you to make complex searches for information
  • The Symbols

 - any group of characters in this position

? - any single character in this position

# - any single digit in this position

[ ] - square brackets for inclusions

[! ] - square bracket and exclamation marks for exclusions

summary queries
Summary Queries

Allows data to be viewed in summary form

- Totals, counts

- Max, min

- First, last etc

Group By one or more fields

update queries
Update Queries

Update of all entries in a column or…

Update of all entries matching

the specified criteria

Arithmetic operations

To specific values

append queries
Append Queries

Add the results of a query to a table

make table queries
Make-Table Queries

Use the results of a query

to make a new table

creating calculated fields

Creating Calculated Fields

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

creating calculated fields97
Creating Calculated Fields
  • It is often more efficient to calculate information (e.g. for a report) when it is needed rather than holding it in a table
  • Instead of having a monthly pay field, you could use an expression to calculate it from Salary divided by 12Monthly Pay: [Employees]![Salary]/12
using the expression builder
Using the Expression Builder

Expression Box

CommonOperators

ObjectFolders

Elements that can be pasted into an expression

Elements that can be pasted into an expression

introducing forms99

Introducing Forms

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

introduction to forms
Introduction to Forms
  • Forms provide a friendlier view of the database
  • Forms can be used to display, view and print data
  • Forms can be used to add, update and delete records
  • Forms can include pictures, drawings, different fonts and colors
basic form layout types
Basic Form Layout Types

Columnar

Tabular

Datasheet

Justified

more about creating forms

More About Creating Forms

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

creating forms without using the form wizard
Creating Forms Without Using the Form Wizard
  • You can either start with a clean canvas ready to add controls
  • Or you can start with a Wizard created form and modify it
manipulating form design
Manipulating Form Design
  • You can modify a form by adding controls
  • You can move, re-size and delete controls
  • Remember the basic Windows rule!
    • First you select by clicking in the control
    • Then you manipulate
types of control
Types of Control
  • Bound controls are bound to fields in tables or queries
  • Unbound controls display information not held in the database
  • Calculated controls are derived from expressions
  • You can add controls using the toolbox
the toolbox
The Toolbox
  • Using the Toolbox you can add controls
    • Open the toolbox by clicking on the toolbox icon
    • Position and size the toolbox to your preferences
    • Double click on the toolbox title bar to attach it to the other menus at the top of the screen
creating a combo box control using the toolbox
Creating a Combo Box Control Using the Toolbox
  • Create a new form
  • Click on the Combo Box icon
  • Follow the on screen instructions
changing form properties
Changing Form Properties
  • Use the Property Sheet to view properties
using forms with subforms
Using Forms With Subforms
  • Use in a one-to-many relationship
  • The main form is the “one”
  • The subform is the “many”
  • You can have more than one subform
  • You can have subforms within subforms

Form

Subform

controlling data input
Controlling Data Input
  • Data input should be easy and as error free as possible
  • Default Value: automatically inserts a value for the field in each new record - it can be overtyped
  • Validation Rule: limits acceptable ranges and values
  • Validation Text: a message which appears when the rule is broken
changing tab order
Changing Tab Order
  • Tab order governs the way you move from control to control on a form
    • Access automatically assigns a tab order based on the order in which the controls were created
    • Use the Tab Order dialog box to make changes
adding command buttons
Adding Command Buttons
  • Command buttons are used to initiate sets of actions such as opening the next form or running a particular query
    • Some of these actions, called event procedures, are built in to Access
adding page breaks
Adding Page Breaks
  • Use page breaks when your form covers more than one screen
  • When the user presses Page Up or Page Down the form moves to the nearest page break
reports

Reports

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

introduction to reports
Introduction to Reports
  • The traditional computer output
  • Preferred by many people
  • Use them for summarizing large amounts of data such as sales reports, stock lists, mailing lists, invoices etc.
printing reports
Printing Reports
  • You can print from the database window, from Design View or Print Preview
grouping levels in reports
Grouping Levels in Reports
  • You can use Report Wizard to add grouping levels
creating a report without a wizard
Creating a Report Without a Wizard

When you choose not to use a Wizard you are presented with a blank “Report” onto which you place controls, as when creating a “Form”

creating controls
Creating Controls
  • There are three types of controls
    • Bound controls are bound to fields in tables or queries
    • Unbound controls display information not held in the database
    • Calculated controls are derived from expressions
  • You can add controls using the Toolbox
file management within access 2000

File Management Within Access 2000

Using Access 2000 - Foundation/Intermediate

access 2000 properties
Access 2000 Properties
  • From the File menu, choose the Database Properties command
    • Displays information about the current database
opening files a review
Opening Files - A Review
  • Sometimes known as loading a file
    • Note: A list of the four most recently opened files is displayed under the File menu
    • You can open these files by clicking on them
selecting files
Selecting Files
  • To mark sequential files
    • Click on the first file
    • Depress the Shift key
    • Click on the last file of the range you wish to select
    • Release the Shift key
  • To mark non-sequential files
    • Click on a file
    • Depress the Ctrl key (and keep it depressed)
    • Click on other files you wish to select
    • Release the Ctrl key
finding files using access 2000
Finding Files Using Access 2000
  • You may search for a file if you know either:
    • The file name
    • A word or phrase contained within the file
copying deleting renaming files and creating shortcuts
Copying, Deleting, Renaming Files and Creating Shortcuts
  • Display the Open dialog box
  • Select a file and right click using the mouse
  • Select the required command from the pop-up displayed
setting a default folder directory
Setting a Default Folder (Directory)
  • By default normally points to My Documents
  • May be customized as you wish
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