General chemistry chem 1103 summer 2003
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General Chemistry CHEM 1103 Summer, 2003. Nicholas H. Snow Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Seton Hall University. Course Structure. MTR meetings 0815-1110 lectures Discussion/problems Quizzes (0815 Thursdays) MTR Meetings 1130-1430 Laboratory Laboratory meets in McNulty 321.

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General chemistry chem 1103 summer 2003 l.jpg

General ChemistryCHEM 1103Summer, 2003

Nicholas H. Snow

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Seton Hall University

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Course Structure

  • MTR meetings 0815-1110

    • lectures

    • Discussion/problems

    • Quizzes (0815 Thursdays)

  • MTR Meetings 1130-1430

    • Laboratory

    • Laboratory meets in McNulty 321

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Course Structure, con’t

  • Four quizzes- 100 points each

    • short answer, long answer

  • Laboratory - 400 points

  • Final - 200 points

    • final will be multiple choice first semester ACS examination

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Study recommendations

  • Study chemistry a few hours everyday; cramming does not work!

  • Study ahead, so that you know what is coming

  • Ask Matt, Rafael and me questions!

  • You should not have to study for the tests if you have properly prepared

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Chapter 1 - What is Chemistry?

  • Science is the attempt to organize and study nature

  • Chemists are interested in all matter

  • Includes problems in material science and biochemistry

    • micro- and nanoelectronics

    • medicine

    • green chemistry

  • In particular

    • properties of matter

    • transformations of matter

    • interactions of different types of matter

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  • How we learn about matter and nature

  • Chemistry can advance by:

    • deliberately planned courses of experimentation

    • accidental discoveries

  • Our experimentation and interpretation must be designed to be prepared for both possibilities

  • Experimentation can also be driven by improvements in methodology and technology (better equipment and methods)

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Scientific method

  • Hypothesis - initial idea about what matter will do

  • Experiment - test of the hypothesis

  • Theory - an explanation of what was observed

  • Laws - statements summarizing observations (not explanations)

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Structure of matter

  • Properties of matter

    • macroscopic (can be seen with the eye)

    • microscopic (underlying structure)

  • Composition of matter

    • atoms - basic unit of matter

    • molecules - combinations of atoms

  • There are a little over 100 types of atoms, but only about 20 are commonly encountered

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  • Elements - types of atoms

  • Compounds - substances composed of two or more different atoms in a definite proportion by mass

  • Chemical formulas

    • indicate the atoms in the compound

    • number of each atom in the compound is designated by subscripts

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Periodic Table

  • Elements demonstrated properties that repeated in a cyclical or periodic fashion

  • Properties included both physical and chemical

  • Gross organization of periodic table

    • metals

    • metalloids

    • nonmetals

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Periodic Table

  • Metals

    • good conductors of heat, electricity

    • shiny, malleable, ductile

    • all solids except Hg

  • Nonmetals

    • properties are highly variable, but are generally poor conductors

    • can be brittle solids, gases or liquids

  • Metalloids

    • often called semiconductors

    • dull, brittle solids

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  • Rows are called periods

  • Columns are called families

    • alkali metals

    • alkaline earths

    • noble gases

    • halogens

    • chalcogens

    • pnicnogens

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Characteristics of matter

  • Elements - matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means

  • Compounds - combinations of two or more different elements in definite proportion by mass

  • Mixtures - combinations of matter that can be separated by physical means

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Phases of matter

  • gas - particles of matter not in constant contact and are constantly moving

    • does not have a specific shape

    • does not have a specific volume

  • liquid - particles are in constant contact, but are still in constant motion

    • has a specific volume

    • does not a definite shape

  • Solid - particles are in contact and cannot move through the material

    • has a specific volume and shape

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  • homogenous - same throughout down to the molecular level; often called a solution

  • heterogeneous - contains regions or phases of different matter; especially at the macroscopic level

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Physical properties

  • can be measured without changing the substance

  • those typically measured

    • volume

    • mass

    • time

    • temperature

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  • Scientific notation (do you know how to use your calculator?)

  • Units

    • prefixes (memorize them)

    • SI and common metric units

  • Dimensional analysis

  • Precision - exactness of a measurement

  • Accuracy - how close a measurement is to the “true” value

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Significant Figures

  • number of digits expressed in a numerical value

    • all nonzero digits are significant

    • imbedded zeroes are significant

    • zeroes used to hold place are generally not significant

      • 12,000 - hard to say

      • 0.0012 - zeroes here are not significant

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  • Physical properties are often measured that must be incorporated in calculations to yield chemically significant information

  • Density is a good example:

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  • Extensive properties are those that depend on the amount of a substance

    • mass and volume

  • Intensive properties depend on the material and are independent of the amount of material

    • density is a good example

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Precision in calculations

  • Scientific measurements often require several measurements from more than one instruments

  • This data is then used to calculate a quantity of interest

  • For example, to measure density, one must measure mass and volume using two separate instruments

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Precision of calculations

  • When adding or subtracting, the number of decimal places in the result is the number of decimal places in the number with the fewest places

  • When multiplying or dividing, the number of significant figures in the result is the same as in the quantity with the fewest significant figures

  • Postpone adjusting the result to the correct number of significant figures until the calculation is complete

  • Remember, the calculator always gives you too many significant figures.