general chemistry chem 1103 summer 2003
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General Chemistry CHEM 1103 Summer, 2003

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General Chemistry CHEM 1103 Summer, 2003. Nicholas H. Snow Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Seton Hall University. Course Structure. MTR meetings 0815-1110 lectures Discussion/problems Quizzes (0815 Thursdays) MTR Meetings 1130-1430 Laboratory Laboratory meets in McNulty 321.

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general chemistry chem 1103 summer 2003

General ChemistryCHEM 1103Summer, 2003

Nicholas H. Snow

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Seton Hall University

course structure
Course Structure
  • MTR meetings 0815-1110
    • lectures
    • Discussion/problems
    • Quizzes (0815 Thursdays)
  • MTR Meetings 1130-1430
    • Laboratory
    • Laboratory meets in McNulty 321
course structure con t
Course Structure, con’t
  • Four quizzes- 100 points each
    • short answer, long answer
  • Laboratory - 400 points
  • Final - 200 points
    • final will be multiple choice first semester ACS examination
study recommendations
Study recommendations
  • Study chemistry a few hours everyday; cramming does not work!
  • Study ahead, so that you know what is coming
  • Ask Matt, Rafael and me questions!
  • You should not have to study for the tests if you have properly prepared
chapter 1 what is chemistry
Chapter 1 - What is Chemistry?
  • Science is the attempt to organize and study nature
  • Chemists are interested in all matter
  • Includes problems in material science and biochemistry
    • micro- and nanoelectronics
    • medicine
    • green chemistry
  • In particular
    • properties of matter
    • transformations of matter
    • interactions of different types of matter
experimentation
Experimentation
  • How we learn about matter and nature
  • Chemistry can advance by:
    • deliberately planned courses of experimentation
    • accidental discoveries
  • Our experimentation and interpretation must be designed to be prepared for both possibilities
  • Experimentation can also be driven by improvements in methodology and technology (better equipment and methods)
scientific method
Scientific method
  • Hypothesis - initial idea about what matter will do
  • Experiment - test of the hypothesis
  • Theory - an explanation of what was observed
  • Laws - statements summarizing observations (not explanations)
structure of matter
Structure of matter
  • Properties of matter
    • macroscopic (can be seen with the eye)
    • microscopic (underlying structure)
  • Composition of matter
    • atoms - basic unit of matter
    • molecules - combinations of atoms
  • There are a little over 100 types of atoms, but only about 20 are commonly encountered
chemicals
Chemicals
  • Elements - types of atoms
  • Compounds - substances composed of two or more different atoms in a definite proportion by mass
  • Chemical formulas
    • indicate the atoms in the compound
    • number of each atom in the compound is designated by subscripts
periodic table
Periodic Table
  • Elements demonstrated properties that repeated in a cyclical or periodic fashion
  • Properties included both physical and chemical
  • Gross organization of periodic table
    • metals
    • metalloids
    • nonmetals
periodic table11
Periodic Table
  • Metals
    • good conductors of heat, electricity
    • shiny, malleable, ductile
    • all solids except Hg
  • Nonmetals
    • properties are highly variable, but are generally poor conductors
    • can be brittle solids, gases or liquids
  • Metalloids
    • often called semiconductors
    • dull, brittle solids
families
Families
  • Rows are called periods
  • Columns are called families
    • alkali metals
    • alkaline earths
    • noble gases
    • halogens
    • chalcogens
    • pnicnogens
characteristics of matter
Characteristics of matter
  • Elements - matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
  • Compounds - combinations of two or more different elements in definite proportion by mass
  • Mixtures - combinations of matter that can be separated by physical means
phases of matter
Phases of matter
  • gas - particles of matter not in constant contact and are constantly moving
    • does not have a specific shape
    • does not have a specific volume
  • liquid - particles are in constant contact, but are still in constant motion
    • has a specific volume
    • does not a definite shape
  • Solid - particles are in contact and cannot move through the material
    • has a specific volume and shape
mixtures
Mixtures
  • homogenous - same throughout down to the molecular level; often called a solution
  • heterogeneous - contains regions or phases of different matter; especially at the macroscopic level
physical properties
Physical properties
  • can be measured without changing the substance
  • those typically measured
    • volume
    • mass
    • time
    • temperature
measurement
Measurement
  • Scientific notation (do you know how to use your calculator?)
  • Units
    • prefixes (memorize them)
    • SI and common metric units
  • Dimensional analysis
  • Precision - exactness of a measurement
  • Accuracy - how close a measurement is to the “true” value
significant figures
Significant Figures
  • number of digits expressed in a numerical value
    • all nonzero digits are significant
    • imbedded zeroes are significant
    • zeroes used to hold place are generally not significant
      • 12,000 - hard to say
      • 0.0012 - zeroes here are not significant
calculations
Calculations
  • Physical properties are often measured that must be incorporated in calculations to yield chemically significant information
  • Density is a good example:
properties
Properties
  • Extensive properties are those that depend on the amount of a substance
    • mass and volume
  • Intensive properties depend on the material and are independent of the amount of material
    • density is a good example
precision in calculations
Precision in calculations
  • Scientific measurements often require several measurements from more than one instruments
  • This data is then used to calculate a quantity of interest
  • For example, to measure density, one must measure mass and volume using two separate instruments
precision of calculations
Precision of calculations
  • When adding or subtracting, the number of decimal places in the result is the number of decimal places in the number with the fewest places
  • When multiplying or dividing, the number of significant figures in the result is the same as in the quantity with the fewest significant figures
  • Postpone adjusting the result to the correct number of significant figures until the calculation is complete
  • Remember, the calculator always gives you too many significant figures.
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