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Drug design and testing,. Drug Names. Chemical name- describes its molecular structure and distinguishes it from other drugs. Generic name- is determined by the pharmaceutical company along with the a special organization known as the U.S. Adopted names Council.

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drug names
Drug Names
  • Chemical name- describes its molecular structure and distinguishes it from other drugs
slide3
Generic name- is determined by the pharmaceutical company along with the a special organization known as the U.S. Adopted names Council
slide4
Trade names or brand name- the manufacturer selects alone…can become a registered trademark. They are they only one who can advertise and market the drug under that name.
slide5
The particular spelling of a brand name drug is proposed by a manufacture for one of several reasons.
to indicate the disease process being treated
To indicate the disease process being treated
  • Azmacort- treats asthma
  • Rythmol- treats cardiac arrhythmias
to simplify the generic name
To simplify the generic name
  • Pseudoephedrine to Sudefed
  • Haloperidol to Haldol
  • Ciprofloxacin to Cipro
to indicate the duration
To indicate the duration
  • Slow-K slow release potassium supplement
drug design
Drug Design
  • New drugs are discovered in one of two ways
  • Totally new chemical substance
  • Derived from molecular manipulation of a current drug
drug design10
Drug Design
  • Until recently,designing a new drug by changing the molecular structure of an existing drug was a very slow process of trial and error
recombinant dna technology gene splicing or genetic engineering
Recombinant DNA technologyGene splicing or genetic engineering
  • Aided by computer design and use of enzymes, researchers are able to remove DNA chemically from one organism and transplant into other
testing
Testing
  • In vitro- in glass
  • In vivo- in living
  • many guidelines set by FDA
animal phase
Animal Phase
  • Precedes human testing
  • watching for toxic effects,side effects, addictions, cancerous tumors or fetal deformities
animal phase14
Animal Phase
  • Calculating the Therapeutic Index (TI)…. The difference between the dosage that produces a Therapeutic Effect and the dosage that produces a Toxic Effect
animal phase15
Animal Phase
  • NOT always a reliable indicator of how well a drug will perform in humans.
human testing
Human Testing
  • 3 phases
  • 1st phase- Healthy volunteers used to study a safe dose range, evaluate side effects and establish a correct dosage.
  • Absorption
phase ii
PhaseII
  • Drug is given on an experimental basis to patients with the disease it will eventually be used to treat- done to determine the extent of it’s therapeutic effect
phase iii
Phase III
  • Drug is administered to several hundreds of ill patients in exactly the way in which it will be used clinically (dosage & route)
  • compared to other current drugs
phase iii human
Phase III Human
  • Group A
  • all patients disorder and receive new drug being studied
  • results compared to next two groups for side effects and ability to treat disorder
phase iii human20
Phase III Human
  • Group B
  • all patients have disorder meant to be treated by new drug
  • all patients receive a placebo and results are compared to other 2 groups
phase iii human21
Phase III Human
  • Group C
  • all patients have disorder meant to be treated by new drug
  • patients will be treated by another drug currently being used to treat disorder
fda approval
FDA Approval
  • After reviewing all documentation on the safety and effectiveness of the new drug
  • May be protected by a patent for up to 17 years
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