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Decent Work for All – bridging the Economic and the Social (and the Environmental) dimension of Sustainable Development ? . International Development Economics Associates’ Employment Conference in Nairobi 25-27 Jan, 07. Disclaimer: . ‘BRAINSTORMING’ , not (necessarily)

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Slide1 l.jpg

Decent Work for All – bridging the Economic and the Social(and the Environmental) dimension of Sustainable Development ?

International Development Economics Associates’

Employment Conference in Nairobi 25-27 Jan, 07

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland,

[email protected]


Disclaimer l.jpg
Disclaimer:

‘BRAINSTORMING’, not (necessarily)

official policies of

MFA-Finland

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Recipes for sustainable employment generation l.jpg
“Recipes” for “Sustainable Employment Generation” ?

  • No! – Employment/DW are new topics for donor agencies  I came to learn from you

  • Yet, in UN-meetings governments have to pretend that we have the answers:

     Please see the EU Main Statement in UN-ECOSOC on Decent Work (drafted by myself)

     Comments, criticism, advice would be most welcome!

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Recipes perhaps these l.jpg
“Recipes” ? – Perhaps these:

1) Place employment creation at the centre of macro-economic policy

2) Focus on production rather than trade only.

and domestic/cross-border mkts vs. exports only

3) Support ministries etc. responsible for employment & social policy (build capacity to articulate ’EMPL/SOC’ to Min.of Finance)

4) Priority: Youth Employment Crisis

5) Invest into People: Employability, skills & social protection: ”Unlock” human capital & entrepreneurship through credible risk mngt movement into higher risk/higher return activities.

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Now africa whom to trust mapping the donors l.jpg
Now: AFRICA - Whom to trust? Mapping the donors:

1) UN: Summit-05, ECOSOC-06, CSocD-07-08

2) ILO (+ World Commission for SDG + Helsinki-process

3) World Bank

4) OECD/POVNET

5) AU/NEPAD/SADC/EAC/ECOWAS

6) EU/EC

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Decent work for all bridging the econ soc l.jpg
DECENT WORK FOR ALL- Bridging the ECON / SOC

Employment,

entrepreneur-

ship, skills,

finance, mkts

  • SOCIAL

  • security & protection

  • inclusion & dialogue

  • rights & equality,

  • incl. gender equality

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Slide7 l.jpg
“Decent Work” or “Any Work”- Is Decent Work an appropriate concept for Africa / ’Global South’ ? Yes. Defined not only as:

  • jobs (8-16)

  • formal sector

    But: All Work for a Living, and social protection for those too young, old, disabled, etc. to earn their secure livelihoods through work.

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Slide8 l.jpg

ILO (+ UN + EU): Decent Work Country Programmes (DWCP)

SOCIAL DIALOGUE

Building social concensus on major policy lines e.g. through tripartite negotiations.

RIGHTS

Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work

e.g. ILO-Conventions

EMPLOY-MENT

Enabling environment, Entrepreneurship, Employability, Skills, Productivity, Competivity

SOCIAL PRO-TECTION

Extending social security and protection to all, incl. those in the informal sector

+ Gender Equality cross-cutting all…

 DWCP to be part of national PRSs


Un rio 1992 sustainable development balanced dev t l.jpg
UN: Rio-1992 Sustainable development =balanced dev’t

ECONOMIC

SOCIAL

ENVIRONMENT

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Copenhagen social summit 95 l.jpg
Copenhagen Social Summit-95:

FULL SOCIAL

PRO- INTEGRATION /

DUCTIVE Equity (= Incl+Prot)

EMPLOY- (= Cohes.)

MENT

POVERTY

ERADICATION

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Focus of global oda efforts since copenhagen povred l.jpg
Focus of global ODA-efforts since Copenhagen: PovRed

FULL SOCIAL

PRO- INTEGRATION /

DUCTIVE Equity (= Incl+Prot)

EMPLOY- (= Cohes.)

MENT

POVERTY

REDUCTION

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Un summit 05 ecosoc 06 csocd 07 oecd povnet wb eu au decent work for all mdg 1c l.jpg
UN Summit-05 + ECOSOC-06 + CSocD-07 + OECD-POVNET + WB + EU + AUDecent Work for All (MDG-1c?)

EMPLOY- SOCIAL MENTPROTECTION /

Equity INCLUSION

Pro-Poor…

People-centred

POVERTY

REDUCTION

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


United nations decent work 1 l.jpg
United Nations/Decent Work-1: + AU

  • ILO-1999 + Mkapa/Halonen WCSDG 2004

    + Helsinki Process (TZ+FIN+Friends)

    2) World Summit, Sept-2005, Para 47:

    “We resolve to support fair globalization and to make the goals of full and productive employment and decent work for all, including for women and young people, a central objective of all relevant national and international policies",

    3) International Labour Conference ILC (ILO) June-06 & ILO Governing Body

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


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United Nations/Decent Work-2: + AU

4) ECOSOC, July-2006, Geneva

 DW as the main theme (Pls give your comments to the EU position!)

 DWCPs (Decent Work Country Programmes)

5) CSocD, Feb-07 and Feb-08, New York

 DW as the main theme (+ Mary Robinson/EGI)

6) Africa? (a) Arusha/World Bank Dec05

 Kellokoski/Finland Nov-06

(b) AU Social & Labour Affairs Committee

 African Soc/Empl Policy Frame

 Johannesburg/SADC Nov-06

 AU Soc/Labour Committee, 4/07

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


United nations desa undp policy guidance notes l.jpg
United Nations (DESA/UNDP) + AUPolicy Guidance Notes:

1) Macroeconomics and Growth

2) Financial Policies

3) Public Investment Management

4) Technology Policy

5) Social Policy ( including ‘Employment’)

6) Trade Policy

 Constructive alternative to WB’s PRS Sourcebook

 Regional & national tailoring, translation, dissemination, training

 Multi-donor trust fund? (~ or: Good ideas fly…)

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


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UN-ECOSOC: Promote Decent Work + AUCountry Programmes (DWCP)

SOCIAL DIALOGUE

Building social concensus on major policy lines e.g. through tripartite negotiations.

RIGHTS

Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work

e.g. ILO-Conventions

EMPLOY-MENT

Enabling environment, Entrepreneurship, Employability, Skills, Productivity, Competivity

SOCIAL PRO-TECTION

Extending social security and protection to all, incl. those in the informal sector

+ Gender Equality cross-cutting all…

 DWCP to be part of national PRSs


Ilo employment strategy l.jpg
ILO Employment Strategy + AU

  • Ministers, Commissioners, etc.

  • Agenda: Based on the headlines of the

    DW Communication:

    - General

    - within EU

    - Trade

    - Development

     Conclusions

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


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ILO Global Campaign on Social Protection for All (ILC-2001) + AU

  • Towards progressive universalism:

    • Building progressively higher levels of protection

    • Based on a basic ‘Social Floor’ consisting of:

      • Basic health carefor all within a pluralistic system

      • Child benefitsto foster school attendance

      • Pro-active (self targeting)social assistance and/or employment guarantee schemes

      • universal pensions in old age, disabilty and loss of breadwinner


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‘Socio-Economic Floor’ as national and global responsibility ?

Income profile B

Higher levels - privately-provided?

’Socio-economic floor’ – ensured by gov’t/ODA?

Minimum insurance needs

Income profile A

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


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ILO/DW Country Programmes-1: responsibility ?

  • ILO Donors’ Mtng: ILO is WEAK at country level:

    - Very little TC-budgets,

    - 40% to Child Labour  other pillars?

    - 40% from US Dept.Labour  others?

    - UNDAF? Other donors? Ministries?

     Strategy:

    (a) Influencing national policies

    (b) Capacity building & legislation

    (c) Partnerships with ’richer’ partners

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


Ilo dw country programmes 2 l.jpg
ILO/DW Country Programmes-2: responsibility ?

  • AFRICA: 16/53 countries (25 in process)

    • TZ: Part of MKUKUTA + MKUZA + UNDAF

  • ASIA/PACIFIC: 10 ready, rest in process

  • EUR/CENTRAL ASIA: 10 ready

  • LAC: 1 ready, 5 in process

  • ARAB: 1 ready

Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

[email protected]


World bank labour market good jobs miles to go l.jpg
World Bank / Labour Market & ”Good Jobs” responsibility ? ’MILES’ to go:

  • Off-spring of WB-work on SocProtection

  • MILES – a proposed framework. Key areas:

    • M - as macro-economics

    • I - as investment climate, institutions and

      infrastructure

    • L - as labor market regulations and institutions

    • E - as education and skills

    • S - as social protection

  • Research on “EMPL & DEV’T”

    - with German IZA

    - purely econometric, non-institutional ?

  • Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    World bank s big problem l.jpg
    World Bank’s responsibility ?Big Problem:

    SOCIAL SOCIAL

    PROTECTION DEVELOPMENT

    & LABOUR & SOCIAL POLICY MARKETS - inclusion

    - accountability

    - cohesion

    POVERTY & GOVERNANCE AS

    ECON.MNGT PARTICIPATORY

    DEMOCRACY

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Ideologies l r or academic identities rule l.jpg
    Ideologies (L/R) or responsibility ? academic identities rule?

    SOCIAL SOCIAL

    PROTECTION DEVELOPMENT

    & LABOUR & SOCIAL POLICY MARKETS Non-economic

    Economists WDR-06 social scientists

    POVERTY & GOVERNANCE AS

    ECON.MNGT PARTICIPATORY

    DEMOCRACY

    Conflicting mental maps & competition for ’results’

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Wdr 2006 stronger language l.jpg
    WDR-2006 – Stronger language responsibility ?

    • Unequal power leads to the formation of institutions that perpetuate inequalities in power, status and wealth

    • These same institutions are also bad for the investment, innovation and risk-taking that underpin long-term growth.

    • To prosper, a society must create incentives for the vast majority of the population to invest and innovate.

    • But possible only when the distribution of power is not highly unequal, and where there are constraints on the exercise of power by office-holders.

    • Cross-country data and historical narratives (e.g Finland) give evidence ofGrowth through equity.

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Www worldbank org wdr2006 l.jpg
    www.worldbank.org/wdr2006 responsibility ?

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Wb socdev arusha conference dec 05 new frontiers of socpol 1 l.jpg
    WB-SocDev: responsibility ?Arusha Conference Dec-05: New Frontiers of SocPol -1

    • Transformation of subjects and beneficiaries into citizens

       universal rights & responsibilities

       Middle-class by-in: Build alliances between the poor and the not-so-poor

    • Role of State: effective & accountable

       Recognizing power relations & institutions

    • Capacity of states  revenue mobilization

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Arusha conference dec 05 new frontiers of socpol 2 l.jpg
    Arusha Conference Dec-05: responsibility ?New Frontiers of SocPol -2

    • Social dimension/Equity in infra, utilities, social services: educ/health/SP

    • Market access for the poor

    • Fiscal policies

    • Migration (internal/external)

    • Citizens organizations/social partners

    • Understanding history, culture, etc.

    • Social Policy at all levels: local, national, global

    • Multi-disciplinarity  Not so bad, but…

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Criticism in and after arusha conference dec 05 l.jpg
    Criticism in and after responsibility ?Arusha Conference, Dec-05 

    • Why almost no African Voices ??

       Is all wisdom on Social Policy really concentrated in US-Universities?

    • Why no European, Nordic, UN Voices?

       Critical articles in Global Social Policy Journal

       Sida/UNRISD/Finland: UNRISD Conference + Kellokoski Experts’ Meeting 1-2 Nov

       Constructive contribution to UN Commission for Social Develoment (CSocD) 7-16 Feb, 2007 in NYC

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide30 l.jpg

    • Aid responsibility ?

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide31 l.jpg

    • Aid responsibility ?

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide32 l.jpg

    • Aid responsibility ?

    + ANNEX:

    Johannesburg Ministerial Declaration

    and Draft Strategy:

    TOWARDS AFRICAN REGIONAL SOCIAL POLICIES

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    African empl soc policies 1 l.jpg
    African Empl. & Soc.Policies-1 responsibility ?

    1) AU-Summit 2004 Ouagadougou / Employment and Poverty

     Follow-up: Sub-regional consultations on ’Integrated Employment Policies and Programmes for Africa’, by AU-Commission, with Swedish/Norwegian funding

     ’To build capacity, to harmonize, to monitor, to disseminate best practice…’

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    African empl soc policies 2 l.jpg
    African Empl. & Soc.Policies-2 responsibility ?

    2) AU Social Policy Framework (rejected 3 times – South Africa/Zimbabwe disagreements on migration now put aside)

    3) NEPAD/AU/SADC/RSA/UN-DESA:

    ”Towards (Sub-) Regional Social/Employment Policies for Africa”

    21-24 Nov, Johannesburg (13 ministers)

     Empl/Soc Pol. dimension of economic integration, e.g. SADC, EAC, ECOWAS, etc.

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Bilaterals oecd povnet ppg socprot empl l.jpg
    Bilaterals: OECD-POVNET/ responsibility ?PPG + SocProt + Empl:

    1) 1999-2001: PovRed Guidelines

    Multi-dimensional poverty + context

    2) 2004-2006: Pro-Poor Growth (PPG) through…agric/infra/PSD/SProt/PIA

    3) 2007-2008: PPG + SocProt/SocPol + Empl

     Consultations with country-level Development Partners’ Groups

    (= Governments + donor country offices)

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide36 l.jpg

    DAC-01: POVERTY is responsibility ?multi-dimensional

    SECURITYrisk, vulnerability social protection/ social risk management (SRM)

    ECONOMICconsumptionincome assets

    POLITICALrights freedoms voice & influence

    GENDER +

    ENVIRON-MENT

    HUMAN

    healtheducationhunger, thirst

    SOCIO-CULTURALstatusrespect, dignity


    Slide37 l.jpg

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland responsibility ?

    [email protected]


    Slide38 l.jpg

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland responsibility ?

    [email protected]


    Growth first revenge or a genuine rethink consultation with partners in the global south on l.jpg
    Growth First ’Revenge’ responsibility ? or a genuine rethink & consultation with partners in the Global South on:

    • PSD: MM4P + R&V

       Markets that matter for the poor +

       Risk and Vulnerability

    • INFRA: IM4P + R&V

       Infra that matters for the poor

    • AGRIC: AM4P + R&V

       Growth potential of SSA-peasants 6 x larger on domestic/cross-border food staple markets than in the saturated export markets (IFPRI)

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide40 l.jpg

    ~ responsibility ?’Growth First’ vs. ’People First’ ??

    SECURITYrisk, vulnerability social protection/ social risk management (SRM)

    ECONOMICconsumptionincome assets

    POLITICALrights freedoms voice & influence

    GENDER +

    ENVIRON-MENT

    HUMAN

    healtheducationhunger, thirst

    SOCIO-CULTURALstatusrespect, dignity


    Several members the econ soc env should be in balance l.jpg
    Several members: The ECON & responsibility ?SOC & ENV should be in balance:

    ECONOMIC

    SOCIAL

    ENVIRONMENT

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide42 l.jpg

    The dimensions are inter-related responsibility ?

    S/H SECURITYrisk, vulnerability social protection/ social risk management (SRM)

    ECONOMICconsumptionincome assets

    POLITICALrights freedoms voice & influence

    GENDER +

    ENVIRON-MENT

    HUMAN

    healtheducationhunger, thirst

    SOCIO-CULTURALstatusrespect, dignity


    Slide43 l.jpg

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland responsibility ?

    [email protected]


    Hot debates 1 l.jpg
    Hot debates-1 responsibility ?

    NEO-

    LIBERALS

    SOC.DEV.

    OPPOSITION

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Hot debates 2 l.jpg
    Hot debates-2 responsibility ?

    ABSOLUTE

    definition

    of PPG ?

    RELATIVE

    definition

    of PPG ?

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Hot debates 3 l.jpg
    Hot debates-3 responsibility ?

    Abs. PPG =

    Inequality

    may grow ?

    Rel. PPG =

    Inequality

    is reduced ?

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Hot debates 4 l.jpg
    Hot debates-4 responsibility ?

    PACE

    of Growth?

    PATTERN

    of Growth?

    Unsettled dispute  Compromise…?

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide48 l.jpg

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland responsibility ?

    [email protected]


    Ppg results from a balance between empowerment security opportunity l.jpg
    PPG results from a responsibility ?balance betweenempowerment/security/opportunity

    EMPOWERMENT/ S.SECURITY/

    INCLUSION PROTECTION

    e.g. WDR-2006 e.g. SRM/SP

    PRO-POOR GROWTH

    = EQUITABLE & EFFICIENT

    GROWTH

    OPPORTUNITIES

    e.g. PSD, Infra, Agric.

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Justifications used by donors for focusing on risk and vulnerability l.jpg
    Justifications used by donors for focusing on risk and vulnerability

    • Pro-poor growth

    • helps avoid shocks that can derail growth

    • promotes innovation, risk taking and entrepreneurship

    • broadens participation in economic growth

    • focuses on asset accumulation

    • counteracts irreversible asset depletion

    • Rights-based

    • MDGs, basic needs

    • human development / human security (Sen/JICA)

    • global socio-economic ‘floor’ (minimum standards) & global compact (MDG8)

    • democratic participation and social dialogue

    • sustainable development, lifecycle and inter-generational thinking

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide51 l.jpg

    Task Team on vulnerabilitySocial Protection and Social Policy:Social Protection =1) Growth: Key factor in Pro-Poor Growth (PPG)2) Human Rights: Responsibility to Care Important for many OECD-governments!!

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Povnet programme of work 2007 8 l.jpg
    POVNET Programme of Work 2007-8 vulnerability

    a) Social Protection + Empowerment

    ~ Comprehensive Social Policy

    b) Employment and labour markets

     Decent Work for All

    + Consultations with partners in the Global South(Paris is no longer the centre of gravity in the world…)

     governments, donors, CSOs, private sector, research

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    European union decent work 1 l.jpg
    European Union/Decent Work-1 vulnerability

    • Social Dimension of Globalization 2004

    • Partnership EC + ILO 2004 

    • EC Communication on Decent Work, 5/06

       DW = 1/9 focus areas of European Aid

    • EU Africa Strategy: DW mentioned

    • Policy Coherence for Devt (PCD)

       SDG + DW = 1/12 priorities for PCD

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    European union decent work 2 l.jpg
    European Union/Decent Work-2 vulnerability

    • UN-ECOSOC, 6/06: DW for All  DWCPs

    • Conclusions on DW: Council 1 Dec 2006

    • DW-Conference 4-5 Dec, 2006

    • EC/DG-DEV Strategy on Empl & SocProt

    • EuropeAid training EU Delegations (+ partners?)

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Eu dw conclusions 1 l.jpg
    EU: DW Conclusions vulnerability - 1

    • Past commitments on SDG + DW

      • UN-Summit, ECOSOC-Ministerial, Council, Lisbon Strategy, EU Strategy on Sust.Devt, EU SocPol Agenda, EU Consensus on Devt Policy

    • Definition of DW  ILO/UN-Definition

    • Min/Max costs/benefits of Globalization

    • Informal into the formal

    • Social partners, business community, CSR

    • UN + ILO + WB + IMF + WTO dialogue

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Eu dw conclusions 2 l.jpg
    EU: DW Conclusions vulnerability - 2

    • Decent Work within EU:

      • Competitiveness in a socially sustainable way

      • Improve productivity by DW

      • Flexibility & security (= ’Flexicurity’)

      • Lifelong learning & work/family balance

      • ILO-Conventions  national legislation

    • External relations:

      • ASEM + LAC + AU, etc.

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Eu dw conclusions 3 l.jpg
    EU: DW Conclusions vulnerability - 3

    • DW in EU Development Cooperation (EC+MS)

      • Summit-05 + ECOSOC + ILO-DWCPs

      • ”Highlights the intention to develop an EC Strategy on Employment and Social Protection in Development”

      • European Consensus on Devt/paras 7, 11, 12, 35, 97-99

         SDG, DW for All, DW into PRSs & Reg.Plans

      • Finance DW through BS + CapacityBldng

      • Coop: EC+MemberStates+ILO+UN-Agencies+IFIs

      • All components of DWCP into PRSs etc.

      • Tenders for contracts: respect core labour std

      • Training & info for EC + MSs + partner ministries etc.

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Eu dw conclusions 4 l.jpg
    EU: DW Conclusions vulnerability – 4

    • DW and trade related issues:

      • Trade lib has a role in DW (right sequencing?)

      • coherent approach to trade & soc.pol.

      • EC to promote soc.stds and DW in trade negotiations

      • Trade Sustainability Impact Assessments

      • ’Aid for Trade’ to promote DW

      • Soc.objectives should not be set for protectionistic reasons. The objective is to achieve social progress, shared fairly for the benefit of all.

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Eu dw conclusions 5 l.jpg
    EU: DW Conclusions vulnerability - 5

    • EU-cooperation with UN and ILO

      • ”Welcomes…UN, in particular ILO, and others”

      • ”Highlights EU’s support for ILO’s DWCPs…”

      • Ownership & priorities by partner countries…

      • EU support to ratification of ILO-conventions

    • Follow-up:

      • Impl & Follow-up to WSO-05 + ECOSOC-06 + CSocD

      • DW-indicator development with ILO

      • EC follow-up, incl. Report on DW-Communication in 2008

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Draft ec strategy on empl soc prot in eu devt cooperation l.jpg
    Draft EC Strategy on Empl & Soc.Prot vulnerabilityin EU Devt Cooperation

    1) Institutional capacity

     e.g. twinning/Institutional cooperation with ministries of labour, social affairs, community

     E.g. Finland / Tanzania

    + with workers’, farmers’, employers’, CSO, entrepreneurs’ (formal/informal) networks

    • Knowledge? Make it demand-driven!

       not only global -primarily national research!

    • VET (not only technical, but also business skills, social work for SProt) Also ”lifelong learning”…Employability/Productivity…

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Draft ec strategy on employment soc prot in devt 2 l.jpg
    Draft EC Strategy on Employment & Soc.Prot in Devt-2 vulnerability

    • Areas of action: Infra, Agric/Rural, PSD

      ( c.f. POVNET-results)

    • Finland: For coherence, add also:

      • Health (financing, e.g. social health insurance, etc.)

      • Education (VET, lifelong learning…)

      • Financial sector: micro-credit, micro-insurance, re-insurance, development banking, etc.

      • Governance: good governance of labour mkt and social security institutions

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Draft ec strategy on employment soc prot in devt 3 l.jpg
    Draft EC Strategy on Employment & Soc.Prot in Devt-3 vulnerability

    • Add also to Areas of action:

      • Conflict mngt – relations to SocProt & Employment

      • Humanitarian assistance  Empl + SocProt (cash?)

      • Legal sector development

      • Gender / Environment

      • Macro-economic policies – impacts on employment, distribution/equity, social protection

      • Disability – opportunity for equal participation, incl. accessibility

      • Youth – special challenges

      • Aging, Children, etc.

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Draft ec strategy on employment soc prot in devt 4 l.jpg
    Draft EC Strategy on Employment & Soc.Prot in Devt-4 vulnerability

    • Aid modalities:

      • Budget Support

      • Technical Cooperation with ministries of Labour, Social Affairs, Community Development, Employment Agencies, Social Security Institutions,

        + Targeted Budget Support to Social Security Funds, Social Health Insurance Funds, etc.

    • Financing:

      - Thematic programme Investing in People +

      - EDF Country Focal Areas (1 out of 9 areas)

      - General Budget Support

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide64 l.jpg
    In reality, vulnerabilityin country level work, the economic perspective (growth) dominates over the social/employment. Why?

    SOCIAL

    ECONOMIC

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Part of the reason is the imbalance between the wb imf vs un at country level l.jpg
    Part of the reason is the vulnerabilityimbalance between the WB(& IMF) vs. UN at country level

    UN

    WB

    (& IMF)

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    In principle both wb un should promote a balanced sustainable dev t agenda on rights social justice l.jpg
    In principle, both WB & UN should promote a balanced sustainable dev’t agenda onRIGHTS/SOCIAL JUSTICE

    WB & UN:

    ECONOMIC

    UN + WB:

    SOCIAL

    ENVIRONMENT

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide67 l.jpg
    Equally, at the national level sustainable dev’t agenda onthere should be a balance between the ’ECON’ and ’SOC/EMPL’ ministries & civil society representatives

    Min. of Finance,

    Central Bank,

    Business & Empl.

    associations

    Min.of Social

    & Labour,

    unions,

    consumers

    Min.of Env / Agric. / Natural resources

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    But often the econ perspective gets a priority in national policy making l.jpg
    But: Often the ECON perspective gets a priority in national policy making

    Min.of Social

    & Labour,

    unions,

    consumers

    Min. of Finance,

    Central Bank,

    Business & Empl.

    associations

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Slide69 l.jpg
    Within WB the ECON dominates over the SOC: The WB has 10.000 economists & only few hundred non-economists

    WB

    non-

    economists

    WB

    economists

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    And among the wb economists one school of thinking dominates over alternatives l.jpg
    And: Among the WB-economists economists & one school of thinking dominates over alternatives

    Heterodox labour

    etc. economics,

    political economy,

    industrial

    policy, etc.

    Orthodox

    ’neo-liberal’

    macro

    economics

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    A key additional factor bilaterals strongly aligning to the wb dominated dev t agenda l.jpg
    A key additional factor: economists & Bilaterals strongly aligning to the WB-dominated dev’t agenda

    UN:

    grants outside

    the BS-frame

    WB-loans

    + Bilaterals’ grants:

    PRSP

    + Budget support

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    An additional factor fragmented un l.jpg
    An additional factor: Fragmented UN economists &

    UNDP

    Unicef

    Habitat

    Unifem

    WFP

    ILO

    IMF &

    World Bank

    & Bilaterals

     economic policy

    WHO

    UN-Aids

    UN: Fragmented

    social policy

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Fragmented un leads to fragmented national soc empl policies l.jpg
    Fragmented UN leads to fragmented economists & national SOC/EMPL policies

    UNDP +

    PMO

    Unicef +

    Min.of

    Children

    & Women

    Habitat +

    Min.of

    Housing

    Unifem +

    Women’s

    Office

    WFP +

    Min.of Agric.

    ILO +

    Min.of

    Labour

    WB +

    Min.of Finance &

    IMF +

    Central Bank

    WHO +

    Min.of

    Health

    UN-Aids +

    National Aids

    Council

    UN: Fragmented

    SOC/EMPL policies

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Efforts to improve the econ soc balance un reform at global and national levels l.jpg
    Efforts to improve the ECON/SOC balance: economists & UN-Reform(at global and national levels)

    WB + IMF

    + bilaterals

    ’One UN’

    + WB

    + bilaterals

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    Rescue development economics balanced comprehensive socio economics of decent work for all l.jpg
    + economists & Rescue Development Economics ! Balanced, comprehensive Socio-Economics of DECENT WORK FOR ALL

    Employment,

    entre-

    preneurship

    & growth

    • SOCIAL

    • security & protection

    • inclusion & dialogue

    • rights & equality,

    • incl. gender equality

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


    1st action priority youth employment crisis un youth employment network l.jpg
    1st action priority: economists & Youth Employment Crisis UN Youth Employment Network

    • UN + ILO + World Bank + EU + bilaterals:

      1) employability / vocational training,

      2) equal opportunities women / men;

      3) entrepreneurship / easy start up and running  more and better jobs;

      4) placing employment creation at the centre of macro-economic policy.

    Timo Voipio, MFA-Finland

    [email protected]


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