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Cooking Terms. The Language of the Recipe. The Language of the Recipe. Become familiar Terms are important tools for the cook. Each has its own meaning. Achieve best results . . Bread Grease Brush Marinate Dredge Sift Flute Grease Flour. Techniques of: Preparation.

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Cooking Terms

The Language of the Recipe


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The Language of the Recipe

  • Become familiar

  • Terms are important tools for the cook.

  • Each has its own meaning.

  • Achieve best results.


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Bread Grease

Brush Marinate

Dredge Sift

Flute Grease

Flour

Techniques of: Preparation


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Bread

  • To cover a food with a coating of crumbs made from bread, crackers, or cereal. The food is often dipped in a liquid such as milk or egg before coating.


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Brush

  • To spread a liquid coating on a food, using a pastry brush or paper towel.


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Flour/Dredge/Coat

  • To lightly coat food in a powdered substance such as breadcrumbs, cornmeal, flour. Most foods require dipping in a liquid, such as egg or milk, in order for the powdered substance to adhere to the food.

  • Equipment: Flour, crumbs or seasoning.


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Flute

  • To form a standing edge on a pastry, such as pie crust, before baking. Press the dough with your fingers to create this scalloped edge, or use a fork to “crimp” the edge.


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Grease

  • To rub shortening, fat, or oil, on the cooking surface of bake-ware. Use waxed paper or paper towel to spread a thin, even layer.


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Marinate

  • To immerse or coat food an acidic-based liquid or dry rub, called a marinade, to add flavor and/or to tenderize.


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Sift

  • To put dry ingredients through a sifter or a fine sieve to incorporate air and separate the fine from the coarse particles.


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Techniques of: Mixing

Beat Knead

Blend Mix

Combine Stir

Cream Whip

Cut in Fold in


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Beat

  • To mix with an over-and-over motion, using a spoon, rotary, or electric beater.


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Blend

  • To combine thoroughly (parts are indistinguishable from one another) two or more ingredients.


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Combine

  • To join (two or more substances) to make a single substance, mix.


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Cream

  • To beat sugar and fat together until fluffy.

  • Equipment: Bowl and Wisk or mixer


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Cut in

  • To mix fat into flour with a pastry blender or two knives.

  • Equipment: Pastry blender or two knives and bowl.


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To Cut-In

  • To cut fat into flour with two knives, or a pastry blender, until it is distributed in small particles throughout the mixture.


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Fold in

To gently cut through the mixture, scrape across the bottom and turn over near the surface.

Equipment: Bowl and spatula


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To Fold-In

  • Measure and add ingredients to a bowl

  • Using a rubber scraper or wooden spoon gently combine the ingredients together by:

    • Moving the rubber scrapper or wooden spoon down the middle of the ingredients

    • Scraping along the bottom of the bowl

    • Coming up the sides of the bowl

    • Lifting the ingredients from the bottom of the bowl to the top

    • Continuing to gently move the ingredients from the top to the bottom and then from the bottom to the top


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Knead

  • To work dough by folding, pressing, and turning, until it is smooth and elastic. Place dough on a floured board, fold it in half, and press firmly with the heels of your hands. Turn the dough about a quarter turn, and repeat the folding and pressing.

  • Equipment: Hands


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To Knead

  • Lightly sprinkle flour onto a countertop or table

  • Remove the dough from the bowl

  • Using your hands fold the dough in half

  • Then press the dough down using your fists

  • Repeat folding the dough in half and pressing it down with your fists

  • We knead the dough to form “gluten” this is the glue that holds your food product together


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Mix

To combine two or more ingredients, usually by stirring.


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Stir

To mix with a circular motion of a spoon or other utensil.


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Whip

To beat rapidly to incorporate air and increase the volume, ex. whipped cream or egg white, gelatin.

Equipment: Wire wisk or electric mixer


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Techniques of: Cutting

Chop Grind

Core Julienne

Cube Mash

Cut Mince

Dice Pare

Grate Score

Scrape Shred

Slice Sliver

Trim


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Chop

To cut into small pieces

Equipment: French or Chef’s Knife


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Core

To remove the core of a fruit with a corer or paring knife


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Cube

To cut into small squares larger than diced, usually about 1/2 inch.


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Cut

To divide foods into small pieces with a knife or scissors.


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Dice

To cut into very small cubes

Equipment: French or Chef’s Knife, c. board


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Grate

To rub food, such as lemon or orange peel, against a grater to obtain fine particles.

Equipment: Grater


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Julienne

To cut food into long, thin strips.


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Mash

To crush food until it becomes smooth.


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Mince

To cut or chop food as finely as possible.

Equipment: French or Chef’s knife.


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Pare

To cut away the skin or a very thin layer of the outside of fruits or vegetables. Use a vegetable peeler or a knife.


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Score

To make thin, straight cuts(usually in a diamond pattern) through the outer edge of fat on meat to prevent the meat from curling during cooking.


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Scrape

To rub a vegetable, such as a carrot, with the sharp edge of a knife in order to remove only the outer layer of skin.


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Shred

To tear or cut into thin pieces or strips.


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Slice

To cut food into flat pieces.


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Sliver

To cut in long, thin pieces.


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Trim

To cut away most of the fat from the edges of meat.


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Techniques of: Cooking

Bake Barbeque

Baste Boil

Braise Broil

Brown Deep-fat fry

Dot Fry

Pan-broil Pan-fry

Poach Preheat

Roast Sauté

Scald Skim


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Bake

  • To cook in an oven or oven-type appliance in a covered or uncovered pan.


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Barbeque

  • To cook meat or poultry slowly over coals on a spit or in the oven, basting it often with a highly seasoned sauce.


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Baste

  • To spread, brush, or pour liquid (moisten), such as sauce, drippings, melted fat, or marinade, over food while it is cooking. Use a baster, brush, or spoon.


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Blanch

  • Placing food in boiling water for quick heating, then removing and placing in cold/ice water to quickly chill


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Boil

To cook in liquid, usually water, in which bubbles rise constantly and then break on the surface.


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Braise

To cook meat slowly, covered and in a small amount of liquid or steam.


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Broil

To cook under direct heat or over coals.


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Brown

To make the surface of a food brown in color by frying, broiling, baking in the oven, or toasting.


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Deep-fat fry

To cook in hot fat that completely covers the food.


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Dot

To place small particles of a solid, such as butter, on the surface of a food.


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Fry

To cook in hot fat.


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To cook uncovered in an un-greased or lightly greased skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates.

To cook in an uncovered skillet with a small amount of fat.

Pan-broil & Pan-fry


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Poach skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

Cooking food gently either partially or completely covered by a liquid which is brought to, and maintained at a temperature just belowboiling point.


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Preheat skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To set the oven to cooking temperature in advance so that it has time to reach the desired temperature by the start of cooking.


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Roast skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To cook by dry heat, uncovered, usually in the oven.


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Sauté skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To cook uncovered in a small amount of fat.

Equipment: Frying pan and butter/oil


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Scald skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To heat a liquid to just below the boiling point; or to pour boiling water over food or to dip food briefly into boiling water.


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Scald skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

  • To heat milk almost to boiling point


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To Scald skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

  • Put ingredients into the saucepan or pot

  • Turn the heat on under the saucepan to a medium temperature about a 3

  • Stir the ingredients as needed

  • Dip a metal spoon into the ingredients when the spoon comes out coated (covered) with the ingredients then you have scalded the ingredients


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Sear skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To cook meat quickly at a high temperature until it becomes brown. Use a skillet with a small amount of fat, or the oven at a high temperature.


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Simmer skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To cook below the boiling point, bubbles form slowly and break near the surface.

Equipment: Saucepan


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Skim skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

  • To remove floating matter from a liquid.


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Steam skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To cook by the vapor produced when water is heated to the boiling point.

Equipment: Steamer or Double Boiler


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Steep skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To cover with boiling water and let stand without additional heating until flavor and color are extracted, as for tea.


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Stew skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To cook slowly and for a long time in liquid


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Stir-fry skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To fry small pieces of food very quickly in a small amount of very hot oil while stirring constantly. Use a wok or skillet.


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Toast skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

To brown by direct heat in a toaster or in the oven.


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Cooking Terms skillet, pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

The Language of the Recipe


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