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Chapter 1. Introducing Hardware. You Will Learn…. That a computer requires both hardware and software to work About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer. Hardware Needs Software to Work. Hardware Physical components of a computer

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Chapter 1 l.jpg

Chapter 1

Introducing Hardware


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You Will Learn…

  • That a computer requires both hardware and software to work

  • About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Hardware Needs Software to Work

  • Hardware

    • Physical components of a computer

    • Visible part of a system

  • Software

    • Set of instructions that directs hardware to accomplish a task

    • The intelligence

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Functions of a Computer

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Binary Communication Between Hardware and Software

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Binary Number System

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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PC Hardware Components

  • Outside computer case: input/output devices

  • Inside the case: processing and storage

    • CPU – most important component

  • Requirements of a hardware device

    • Method for CPU to communicate with it

    • Software to instruct and control it

    • Electricity to power it

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Hardware Used for Input and Output

  • Connects to computer case by ports (eg, serial, parallel, USB, game, keyboard, mouse)

  • Popular input devices:

    • Keyboard

    • Mouse

  • Popular output devices:

    • Monitor

    • Printer

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Ports

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Input Devices

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Output Devices

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Hardware Inside the Case

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Processing

CPU (most important)

Chip set

Temporary storage

RAM

Cache memory

Electrical system

Power supply connections

Communication with other devices

Traces

Expansion slots

System clock

Programming/setup data

Flash ROM

CMOS setup chip

Motherboard Components

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Motherboard

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Motherboard (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The CPU

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Chip Set

  • Controls most activities on the motherboard

  • Includes several device controllers

    • USB controller

    • Memory controller

    • IDE controller

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Chip Set (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Storage Devices

  • Temporary (primary storage, or memory)

    • Temporarily holds data and instructions while processing them

    • Faster to access than permanent storage

  • Permanent (secondary storage)

    • Data and instructions must be copied into primary storage (RAM) for processing

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Primary and Secondary Storage

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Primary Storage Devices

  • Memory, or RAM, located on motherboard and other circuit boards

    • Volatile versus nonvolatile (or ROM) memory

  • Types of boards that hold memory chips

    • SIMMs

    • DIMMs

    • RIMMs

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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RAM Chips

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Types of RAM Modules

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Secondary Storage Devices

  • Hard drives

  • CD-ROM drives

  • DVD drives

  • Zip drives

  • Floppy drives

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Hard Drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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EIDE Technology

  • Used by most hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and DVD drives

  • Can accommodate up to four EIDE devices on one system

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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IDE Connectors on a Motherboard

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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IDE Connectors on a Motherboard (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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IDE Connectors on a Motherboard

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Hard Drive’s Power Supply

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Floppy Drive Connection

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Floppy Drive Connection (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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CD-ROM Drive Connection

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices

  • The data bus

    • System of pathways used for communication and the protocol and methods used for transmission

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Bus and Bus Lines

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Data Bus

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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System Clock

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Clock Speed

  • Of motherboard

    • Measured in megahertz (MHz)

  • Of CPU

    • Measured in gigahertz (GHz)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Expansion Slots

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Types of Expansion Slots

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Interface (Expansion) Cards

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Interface (Expansion) Cards (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Electrical System

  • Power supply

    • Most important component of computer’s electrical system

    • Converts/reduces electricity to voltage the computer can handle

    • Runs a fan directly from electrical output voltage to cool inside of computer case

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Electrical System (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Electrical System (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Instructions Stored on the Motherboard

  • ROM BIOS (most are flash ROM)

    • System BIOS

    • Startup BIOS

    • CMOS setup

  • Motherboard BIOS supports ACPI, APM, and Plug and Play technologies

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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ROM BIOS Chip

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Motherboard Configuration Settings

  • CMOS chip

    • Stores setup (configuration) information

    • Powered by a battery on motherboard when power is off

  • Setup information can also be set by jumpers and DIP switches

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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CMOS Configuration Chip

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Setting Jumpers

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Using DIP Switches

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Summary

  • Introduction to hardware components of a computer system

  • Initial insight into how hardware works

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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