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The Reproductive System Anatomy of the reproductive system Hormonal control Fertilization and development Contraception “Assisted reproduction” PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Reproductive System Anatomy of the reproductive system Hormonal control Fertilization and development Contraception “Assisted reproduction” Formation of gametes Sperm Eggs Fertilization- fusion of gametes zygote Zygote divides repeatedly; differentiates

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The Reproductive System Anatomy of the reproductive system Hormonal control Fertilization and development Contraception “Assisted reproduction”

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  • The Reproductive System

  • Anatomy of the reproductive system

  • Hormonal control

  • Fertilization and development

  • Contraception

  • “Assisted reproduction”


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Formation of gametes

Sperm

Eggs

Fertilization- fusion of gametes

zygote

Zygote divides repeatedly; differentiates

into unique cells and tissues


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Features of reproductive system

Gonads

produce gametes and hormones

ducts to trasnport the gametes

accessory glands and organs

(secrete fluids)

external genitalia


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Testes are formed in abdomen and descend

into scrotum at 7th month of development

Temperature in scrotum is slightly lower than

in body

Spermatogenesis (formation of sperm)

sperm-forming cells

Sertoli cells

interstitial cells-produce testosterone

Process takes about 9 weeks


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Spermatazoa in testes are not yet capable

of fertilization

Epididymis- is actually over 20 feet long!

spermatazoa complete maturation

as they move through epididymis

(about 2 weeks)

Ductus deferens (vas deferens)

Ejaculatory duct


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Ejaculatory duct

Sperm

Seminal fluid

secretions from prostate

seminal vesicles

bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands)

Activate sperm

Provide nutrients

Contractions help move sperm

Buffers


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Control of erection

Hypothalamus (conscious control)

Parasympathetic nerves

neurotransmitter- nitric oxide?

promotes blood flow into penis

(Viagra- promotes vasodilation)

Control of emission and ejaculation

sympathetic nerves- muscle contraction


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Female reproductive system

Ovaries

Accessory organs

uterus

uterine (Fallopian) tubes

vagina

external genitalia


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Hormonal control of the female reproductive cycle

Pituitary and gonadal hormones

Must coordinate ovarian and uterine cycles


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Evaluation of contraceptive methods

Do they work?

Are they safe?

Are they available?

Are they affordable?

Do they protect against sexually transmitted

diseases (STDs)


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Abstinence

Surgical sterilization

essentially permanent


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Oral contraception

Prevents ovulation

Is reversible

Does NOT protect against STDs


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Risks of oral contraception

Requires discipline

Antibiotics can inhibit effect

Can increase risk of heart attack or stroke

can promote clot formation (estrogen)

can promote atherosclerosis (progesterone)

Can promote vaginal and cervical infections

Can promote cervical cancer from HPV


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Progesterone-only contraceptives may be a

little safer but not quite as effective

Minipill (every day)

Depo-Provera (3 months)

Norplant (5 years)


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Is there a male pill?

Strategies:

shut off testosterone

lowers sperm count, but linked with reduced

sex drive and erectile dysfunction

supplemental dose of testosterone

Inhibit FSH?

high rate of permanent sterility

Inhibit GnRH?

does not completely inhibit sperm production

in everyone, but is reversible

Answer: not yet


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IUD

Safe and effective

Risk of inflammatory disease, and subsequent

sterility

Recommended for women who don’t want

future pregnancy or are not at risk

for STD


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Barrier methods

Diaphragms

Cervical caps

Condoms (male and female)

Spermicides

Not as effective in pregnancy prevention

Do provide protection against STDs

Availability


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Fertility awareness (“natural family planning”)

Minute knowledge of woman’s cycle

Indicators of ovulation

body temperature

cervical mucus


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Future methods?

Vaccines against sperm, eggs, hCG, hormones

Diaphragms with spermicide

Vaginal rings with progestins

Skin patches


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