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Additional References PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Additional References Dr Christiane Northrup, “ Women’s Bodies, Women’s Wisdom”, Revised 1998, Bantam, NY, NY, mainly pp 392-407. (Some information on Natural Family Planning, NFP) Katherine Davis, Self , Dec 2000, p.82 (more info on NFP) Jackie Cissell Joel Brind Additional References

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Additional References

  • Dr Christiane Northrup, “ Women’s Bodies, Women’s Wisdom”, Revised 1998, Bantam, NY, NY, mainly pp 392-407. (Some information on Natural Family Planning, NFP)

  • Katherine Davis, Self, Dec 2000, p.82 (more info on NFP)

  • Jackie Cissell

  • JoelBrind


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Additional References

  • Seaman, Barbara, “The Doctor’s Case Against the Pill”, Doubleday-Dolphin, Garden City, New York, 1980.

  • This book is on 2 hour reserve for Chem. 100 in Milne.


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STEROID STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS:

  • Structure is based on the ring structure below:


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SMALL STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES HAVE PROFOUND CONSEQUENCES

Testosterone

Estradiol


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ANDROGENS-1

  • Produce secondary sex characteristics of males.

  • Used For:

  • Muscle Building

  • Testosterone Replacement

  • Following information from Bruce Bower, Sci. News, 13 Jul ‘89, pp30,31.


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SIDE EFFECTS/ MEN / ANDROGENS #2:

  • Blood Clotting

  • Testicular Atrophy

  • Difficulty in urinating

  • Male Pattern Balding

  • Decreased Sperm Production

  • Impotence

  • Hypertension


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SIDE EFFECTS / MEN / ANDROGENS#3:

  • Insulin Resistance

  • Inability to Ejaculate

  • High Cholesterol

  • Fluid Retention

  • Heart Attack

  • Risk of Kidney Disease Increased

  • Mental Disorders (Roid Rage)


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ANDROGEN SIDE EFFECTS / WOMEN

  • Enlargement of Clitoris(1)

  • Loss of Body Curves

  • Deepening of Voice

  • Menstrual Problems

  • Irreversible Pattern Baldness

(1)See Dayton, L., Women’s Sports and Fitness,

Mar. ‘90, pp 52-55.


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ESTROGENS, PROGESTINS- BIRTH CONTROL PILLS

  • Can control male as well as female fertility- dropped as male pill

  • Use as male pill dropped when one man was found to have testicular atrophy*

  • Three women died- the formula was changed and the tests proceeded!!*

  • In women, the pill simulates pregnancy

  • *From Dr Ellen Grant “The Bitter Pill”


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Pill

  • “ According to the Western model, pregnancy is a disease, menopause is a disease, and even not getting pregnant is a disease. Dangerous drugs and devices are given to women, but not to men-just for birth control. I’ve reached the conclusion that to many doctors being a woman is a disease.” (Italics are the author’s)

  • P. xi, Seaman, B, (see references)


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.

PILL

  • The modern pill has a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin.

  • In combination these drugs influence the pituitary gland in such a way as to prevent ovulation and therefore fertility.

  • There are slight variations in administration and effect, but the drugs all chemically induce sterility.

  • .


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Synthetic Hormones Used In Pills


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PROBLEMS WITH THE PILL

  • “Minor” include: weight gain, nausea, allergic rash, dizziness, headache, facial skin pigment change, problems w/contact lenses, aggravation of varicose veins, mental depression, irregular menstrual flow*.

  • “Major” include: blood clots, thromboembolism, zinc deficiency, possible cancer (esp. teens), hypertension, increase of blood cholesterol, poor glucose tolerance, vit. B6 deficiency, bleeding liver tumors (rare)*. *Dr Ellen Grant, “Sexual Chemistry”


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ESTROGEN THE VILLAIN?

  • Estrogen clearly causes cancer of the reproductive tract in animals; difficult to prove in humans.

  • Perhaps also skin and breast cancer

  • Blood clotting/ approx. 1 in 2000 women hospitalized each year; pill users twice as likely to have a stroke as non-users.

  • Not recommended for use with these conditions: suspected pregnancy, history of heart problems, irregular periods, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, smoking.


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ESTROGEN/ WARNING:KNOWN CARCINOGEN

  • From Science News, 25 Jan. ‘03 vol. 163 p. 62:

  • Sex hormones known as steroidal estrogens recognized as carcinogens by Nat’l Inst. Health. These include those used in birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy.


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ESTROGEN/ WARNING:KNOWN CARCINOGEN

  • Listed earlier as probable carcinogens now ALL hormones of this class (steroidal estrogens) as of 11 Dec. ‘02 are now listed as carcinogens.*

  • *cancer causing chemical


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Estrogen is a Carcinogen!

  • Estrogens that are used in hormone replacement therapy and birth control pills are carcinogens.

  • The National Institutes of Health deemed on 11 Dec 2002 that ALL hormones in this class are moved from probable carcinogens be classified as carcinogens.* * Sci. News, 163, p.62, Jan 25 2003


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ESTROGEN/ WARNING:KNOWN CARCINOGEN

  • Unless you take these pills for a legitimate illness or condition STOP NOW! Being fertile is healthy- used exclusively as a birth control method is placing yourself at risk for cancer!

  • Doctors or others who prescribe these estrogens simply as birth control might be sued for malpractice.


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Progestogens and Cancer

  • Dr Ellen Grant in a recent letter to GP (21 Jan ‘02, p. 23) references an article by Mike Dixon in the British Med., J. that gives convincing evidence of a cancer progesterone link.

  • Grant cites studies that show huge increases in breast cancer.


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Progestogens and Cancer

  • Grant’s letter cites clear evidence that both estrogen and progestogens cause breast cancer with figures such as 24% increases in women 50-54 and 42% in women under 30.

  • She states that numerous studies have found that increases in breast, cervical, lung and liver cancers are associated with hormones.


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Norplant & Depoprovera

  • Both of these are progestogins (progesterones). Both require some form of hypodermic application. They are long lasting (months). These can cause severe mood changes in many women as well as acting as birth control.Because of mood alteration one doctor quoted in Grant’s “Sexual Chemistry” has stated that many women are so ornery when on these drugs that no one would get close enough to have children.


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New Addition / Progestogen Based Birth Control

  • Levonorgestrol as a vaginal suppository has recently entered the market in the U.S.

  • The trade name for this drug is

  • The drug is heavily advertised as the answer to a mother’s dream- in her busy day she may forget the pill. With this magic pill she can hop into bed anytime.


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The Auschwitz Connection

  • This following information comes from Dr. Ellen Grant’s book entitled “Sexual Chemistry”

  • Female prisoners who survived Auschwitz have an above average number of low intelligence offspring.


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Auschwitz Con’t

  • Women seem to remember treated “soup” They lost their period within 10 days.

  • At Nuremberg trials after the second world war- Nazis involved with Auschwitz testified to growing S.American plants in greenhouses. These plants produce estrogen like substances. These chemicals form the basis of the original “pill”.


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Auschwitz con’t

  • Conclusion was: the women and men were fed estrogens as an experiment in birth control.

  • In the 1940s Margaret Sanger convinced Katherine McCormick to fund the research for the “pill”. Sanger reasoned that the pill was needed for the ignorant masses in jungles, slums, etc. (This statement is in the Nov/Dec/’95 issue of “The Sciences”- see slide #1). Sanger was a leading proponent of the eugenics movement. Her motto was “more children from the fit, less from the unfit-that is the chief aim of birth control”


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Pill

  • The original reason for development of the pill was not primarily to free women, it was to rid the world of “undesirables” -the dream of the moneyed elite and (based on the Auschwitz evidence) the Nazis.

  • The New Scientist points out that the World Bank calls population control “the most cost effective form of development aid” D. Mackenzie,New Scientist, 138, 3 Apr ‘90, p.4


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Pill

  • It is well known that use of hormones can be detrimental to children if used too close to pregnancy. Women get pregnant- therefore to protect the next generation, women should not take chances with the pill.

  • This is the impetus behind the desire for a male pill.


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Pill

  • It is for these reasons that I agree with some “radical” feminists who declare the pill to be antiwoman.(For Example- see Denfield, R. p.249 in Gross, P. et.al. “The Flight from Science & Reason”, NY Acad. of Sci., 1996 & Robyn Roland in “Man-Made Women”, isbn# 0-253-20450-x, p.86)

  • What is the alternative? Perhaps a partial answer is in the British Medical Journal(18 Sep ‘93, p.307).

  • Newer self administered tests that determine a woman’s readiness to become pregnant do work as well as the pill in preventing untimely pregnancy.

  • The benefits are a. no unnatural chemicals and b. an almost non-existent divorce rate among couples using this method. See “Healh”, jan/feb, ‘01, p54 for the effects of divorce on kids.


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“Natural” (Chemical-Free) Family Planning

  • Natural family planning also is hormone based.

  • Because so many couples are unable to have children, methods have been developed to pinpoint ovulation by observing the mix of hormones naturally produced by a woman over her period.


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Natural” (Chemical-Free) Family Planning

  • Very precise timing of ovulation is possible.

  • Carl Djerassi, an early investigator in pill research has been quoted as being in favor of fertility monitoring for teens and young women- both for birth control(NFP) and for fertility. He says there are red light and green light hormones. (see Discover, Mar., ‘91, p. 23.)


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Natural” (Chemical-Free) Family Planning

  • Couples have been able in some cases to overcome their lack of fertility in this way.

  • The time of ovulation can be precisely timed and this knowledge is helpful.

  • Additionally, precise knowledge of a woman’s cycle helps doctors to diagnose problems.


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CHEMICAL FREE FAMILY PLANNING

  • There are three methods-

    • Monitor hormones

    • Monitor temperature

    • Monitor mucus

  • One or all of these methods work either for determining the optimum time to become pregnant or not pregnant. The partners can then make decisions on this basis.


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PILL

  • There are no side effects, no hormone induced or fed cancer, no cardiovascular damage, no Zn depletion or other hormone induced syndromes.

  • Recently a test kit has become available in Great Britain and should be approved in the U.S.


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SOME NEWER ITEMS /PILL

  • “Science News” (vol 155-23/01/99-p.56) reports that only some chlorinated hydrocarbons, not DDT, chlordane, or kepone are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. High blood levels of dieldrin, the most estrogen-like insecticide, is associated with double the cancer risk of dieldrin free women. (One wonders about the wisdom of using estrogens themselves when chemicals that mimic estrogens are so risky.)


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Environmental Estrogens

  • An article in Chemical & Engineering News (Bette Hileman, 31 Jan. ‘94, p.19) indicates that environmental estrogens and estrogen mimics may be causing increases in breast cancer, birth defects in male reproductive organs, testicular cancer, endometriosis and other disorders.


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Estrogens/Popular Press

  • In the Parade section of the 31 Jan 99 edition of the Hartford Courant (CT) Dianne Hales states that the longer in life a woman is exposed to estrogen, the greater the risk of breast cancer (p5). She refers to self-produced estrogen- but why not those estrogens in the pill? Are these estrogens safer than natural ones?


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SOME NEWER ITEMS/PILL

  • The British Medical Journal (Dec 1998) recently reported that long term studies indicate a lessening of risk to 0 for profound side effects from the pill ten years after discontinuance of use. However, note that the effects are there during use and for ten years after. Additionally, only survivors were counted. Those who died before the study were not counted. CBS news used the headline “Pill causes no Problems”- clearly misleading.


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New Items/Hormones

  • Tamoxifen is a drug antagonist for estrogen. It is used to reverse the tumor promoting effects of estrogen in treatment of breast cancer.* There have been conflicting published reports of use as a tumor preventative. Note the clear and consistent connection between breast cancer and estrogen.

  • *J Brainard, “Science News”, p.37, 18 Jul. ‘98


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FORMULA ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE PROFOUND SIDE EFFECTS

  • The major adjustment has been to reduce or eliminate estrogen.

  • The “minipill” introduced with progestin only.

  • Newer estrogens and progestins tested for use in pills.

  • Dr Grant was in on the testing of reduced estrogen pills and was unimpressed.


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Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

  • A recent article in U.S.News and World Report shows that steroid replacement does not do what was advertised.

  • HRT does not reduce heart attack (increases occur instead), cardio-vascular problems, and osteoporosis.*

  • *Spake, Amanda, US News & Wrld rpt, 21 Jan ‘02, p. 54


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ESTROGEN? A PROBLEM?

  • Health magazine states that a federal advisory panel recommended that the National institutes of Health recognize estrogen as a cancer causing substance. This was followed by soothing words about risk/benefit. (P.182, Mar’01) On the same page, a new delivery of estrogen containing birth control chemicals (by injection) was being touted. This magazine is supposedly trying to help women.


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Lunelle/ Monthly “protection”

  • Lunelle is an injectable form of hormones: medroxyprogesterone acetate (a progesterone) and estradiol cyprionate (an estrogen)

  • The following is a statement in an advertisement for the drug.

  • “Serious risks that can be life threatening include blood clots, stroke, and heart attack”


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Lunelle, Continued

  • As is true with all hormonal birth control methods, the ad. states that there is no protection from AIDS or other sexually transmitted diseases.

  • The hormones used are synthetic chemicals; not produced by a woman’s body.


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Pill

  • All the chemicals used in all pills need to survive the gastrointestinal system. None of the steroids now used are produced naturally in the body. These natural steroids need injection. Users of the pill cannot avoid the fact that manufactured chemicals produce a disorder in a healthy body.This is identical to ingesting the pesticides, additives and other chemicals that can cause problems.

  • Being able to become pregnant is healthy- becoming chemically sterile is not. The body is being stressed by synthetic hormone-like substances when the “pill” is used in an otherwise healthy person. Dr Ellen Grant went from staunch advocate to opponent of steroid contraceptives based on her patients’ bad experiences.


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Hormones/Hormone -like Chemicals in the Environment

  • Articles are appearing in the scientific journals that show ill effects on fish from estrogens and estrogen mimicking chemicals. Estradiol can affect fish at the 1 part per trillion level.See for example G.Vines, “Unmanned by a sea of Oestrogen (estrogen)”, New Scientist, 138 1993 p.5 and L.C.Folmar et.al., Environmental Health Perspectives, 104:10 Oct ‘96, p. 1096


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Environmental Estrogens

  • One of the new contraceptive rings can contaminate 24 million liters of water in concentrations of steroids high enough to affect fish.

  • This puts this device in the same category as the contraceptive patch. *

  • *Sci News, 163, p62, Jan. 25, 2003


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PILL /Article in “Health”

  • The pill does cause breast cancer according to researchers at the Mayo Clinic. A study of women who used the “pill” up to 1975 showed a three times greater incidence of breast cancer over non-users. The reduced estrogen pill used post’75 theoretically was expected to be less dangerous.* Care to participate as a voluntary lab subject? Take the pill. You can trust them.*Zandonella, C., Health,jan/feb, 2000, p.144


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PILL/ Evidence for Danger in Second&Third Generation

  • The evidence is reported in a Medlineplus article derived from a report by Martha Kerr for Reuters/ 8 Feb ‘02. The risk of stroke from third generation pills is twice that for the second generation pill. Both second and third generation pills are worse than the original formulations for the pill.


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Recent News/Hormones

  • Designer estrogen mimics: New developments based on tamoxifen and raloxifene seem to suggest that by careful chemical design it may be possible to reduce or eliminate side effects while retaining benefits of hormone replacement therapy. Christensen, D., “Science News”, 16 Oct ‘99, p252.


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RECENT NEWS / Hormones

  • On 24 July ‘01 the Oneonta Daily Star reported that the American Heart Association no longer recommends that estrogen be given to women to help prevent heart and other cardio-vascular problems. It does not work although it was previously thought to help keep the cardiovascular system healthy.


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RECENT NEWS/ Hormones/Zn

  • Recent data indicate that Americans do not get enough zinc*. Zn is essential for proper immune system function, wound healing, taste, protein pro-duction, maintaining insulin, disposal of CO2, sperm production, fetal development, bone density and hun-dreds of enzymes. Estrogen use depletes Zn. Best source is red meat.*Feder, D., Better Homes & Gardens. P.122, Oct. 1997.


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RECENT NEWS/ Hormones/Zn

  • Adults need 12-15 mg (milligrams or .001 gram) per day.

  • Sources in mg/ounce: fortified cereal, 15^; oysters, steamed, 9; beef, cooked, 2; pork, cooked, .9; nuts&peanuts^, .9; oatmeal, (not fortified), cooked, .9; chicken, dark meat, .75; chicken, white meat, .35. Fish, eggs, milk, .25. ^Veg-etable Zn is less easily absorbed.


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RU486/Prostaglandins- Abortifacients

  • RU 486 acts by interfering with progesterone. It is a synthetic steroid hormone. Once again all the long term problems associated with steroid use are potentially present. It acts by making the lining of the uterus inhospitable to the new human being. Deprivation of nutrients starves the baby and it dies.


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Use of Misoprostol (Cytotek), a Synthetic Prostaglandin

  • Once the RU486 does its job and the baby is dead, the remains must be flushed from the uterus. Typical usage of RU486 requires the woman (day 1) with a verified 3-9 week pregnancy to ingest RU486. After 48 hours, she returns to the doctor (~3% of women will have miscarried the baby at this time). Women who have not yet miscarried then receive misoprostol to induce labor. She must remain in the doctor’s care for at least 4 hours to be monitored for side effects. Another 54% of miscarriages will occur at the doctors office during this 4 hours. If no miscarriage occurs, the woman is released . A miscarriage may occur anywhere now. In 43% of the cases the woman leaves the office to go into labor on her own. Bleeding can occur and last up to 14 days. (continued on the next slide)


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Cont’d from Previous slide- Ru486/Cytotek abortions

  • The patient returns to the doctor after 14 days for a checkup. She will then undergo a dilation & curettage (D&C) to remove any remains that may cause an infection. Some women (5-10%) will not have the abortion and will require a surgical abortion. (NOTE: the percentages used will not necessarily add up to 100 due to an uncertainty of up to 5% in many percentages given.)

  • G.D. Searle has issued a warning to doctors about Cytotek. On 23 Aug. 2000, Michael Cullen, MD wrote to the nation’s obstetricians about serious side effects when used off-label. The company has incomplete risk research for use with RU486 or similar chemicals. The chemical is not approved by GD Searle for induction of labor or abortion. It is approved for use in preventing the bleeding that occurs from NSAIDS such as aspirin and ibuprofen. cont’d on next slide


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Ru486, Continued

  • There are some uses for RU486 that are not connected with abortion. Among these are possible use for breast cancer. As with all scientific discoveries there are wise and unwise uses. As for Citotek, prevention of bleeding from aspirin and other NSAIDS is a boon for arthritis patients and others who depend on NSAIDS for pain and inflammation relief. A contact with representative Sherwood Boehlert, Represen-tative to the House led to some information justifying the FDA’s approval of Citotek. The information in the Searle letter is disputed by the American College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians who see Cytotek as a useful drug in their practice.

  • See an edited version of the RU-486 news in Health Magazine, jan/feb 2001, p. 147


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RU486 Continued

  • They see the risks listed in the Searle letter as overblown and they assert that at the concentrations they use the risks are minimal. (Perhaps because it is not administered to them.) Please note that it is very unusual for a drug company to not maximize use of their product as Searle has done .

  • The letter from Rep Boehlert and the information sent me on cytotek is available from the instructor


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Natural Family Planning (NFP)- Further Information

  • Call ELIZABETH COLLINS AT 607 432 9264 OR

  • MARY KAY KENNEDY AT 607 746 3049

  • HOME STUDY: 1 800 745 8252

  • Email: [email protected]


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ABORTION & ESTROGEN

  • Dr. Joel Brindof Baruch College SUNY has published some research that indicates an increased risk of cancer after an induced abortion. Once again abnormal estrogen production or response may be at the bottom of this observation.


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Additional News/Steroid Related

  • Full term pregnancies spur tumor suppressor chemical (Sci. News, vol 160, 20 Oct ‘01, p.247). Breast cancer reduced when naturally occurring steroids produced during pregnancy induce a cancer protecting protein named p53.


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CHEM100/newer material

  • Evidence for the embryo as an inde-pendent individual comes from the discovery that the mother’s body rejects it as a foreign invader.

  • The reason the new embryo is not ex-pelled is that a hormone called cotropin releasing hormone is excreted by the embryo. (con’t on next slide)


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CHEM 100/ Newer items

  • Pregnancy spurs a tumor suppressor.

  • Women who undergo a full term preg-nancy at an early age are less likely to develop breast cancer than those who do not become pregnant.

  • Reason: During pregnancy a protein called P53 is secreted that protects against carcinogens and radiation. Con’t on next slide.


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CHEM 100/ New material

  • This hormone stimulates a protein that suppresses the mother’s immune system to protect the embryo.

  • Information from B.Narder, “Sci. News” , vol 160 (20 Oct ‘01) p. 247


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CHEM100/An Alternative New Material/latex condom?

  • What about condoms as an alternative to steroid based birth controls.

  • It is well known that the pill and other hormone based birth control does not prevent sexually transmitted disease STD.

  • Condoms are touted as a method to prevent transmission of STDs. (Next Slide)


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CHEM 100/An Alternative? New Material/latex condoms

  • The U.S.Government Agency National Institutes of Health(NIH) has recently released a report that shows the effectiveness of condoms is weak or inconclusive.

  • There is evidence that condoms can reduce incidence of AIDS and gonorrhea, but not herpes, syphilis, and human papillomavirus(next slide)


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CHEM 100/ An Alternative? New Material/Latex Condom

  • The centers for disease control (CDC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has pamphlets saying that con-doms are effective in all STDs.

  • There is little or no evidence for this claim according to this recent report from the( NIH). (Next Slide)


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CHEM 100/ New Material/Latex Condoms

  • Although some in congress are saying that this is just another government cover-up, we (Chem 100) can see it as related to the tentative nature of science. (next slide)

  • REF: Kinkaid, C. “Unsafe Sex” American Legion Magazine, Dec. 2001, p. 46.


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CHEM 100/Latex

  • The formation of latex polymer results when the monomeric units form a polymer.

  • These units will not polymerize while in a basic medium.

  • As demonstrated in class, adding some acid allows the latex monomers to polymerize to a rubber ball.


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