Resistance strength training
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RESISTANCE / STRENGTH TRAINING. CAST SPORT SCIENCE GROUP. (Balyi, 1997). Generic Content Distribution, contd. Balyi, 1997. Training Progression. Technique. Technique + Endurance + Circuit Tr. Technique + Power + Str. Tr. + End. Tr. AGE

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RESISTANCE / STRENGTH TRAINING

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Resistance strength training

RESISTANCE / STRENGTHTRAINING

CAST SPORT SCIENCE GROUP


Resistance strength training

(Balyi, 1997)


Generic content distribution contd

Generic Content Distribution, contd

Balyi, 1997


Training progression

Training Progression

Technique

Technique

+ Endurance

+ Circuit Tr.

Technique

+ Power

+ Str. Tr.

+ End. Tr.

AGE

8 13 16/18

Incorporate technical & fitness parameters with sport

performance for evaluation, up to at least 16 / 17 yrs old.


Resistance strength training

Stabilizes in adulthood

INFLUENCE OF MATURATION ON STRENGTH

Contributions to muscle

strength during maturation

100% Adult potential

Lean body mass

Testosterone

Neural myelination

development

BirthPubertyAdult

Strength primarily

via motor patterns

NEURAL

Consolidation

of strength

Factors

HORMONAL

Optimal strength

Potential

(Kraemer, 1989)


Methods of strength training

Methods of Strength Training

  • Three ways to achieve maximal muscular tension:

    • Maximal effort method -Lifting a maximal load

    • Submaximal & repeated effort methods -Lifting a nonmaximal load to failure … during final reps, muscles develop maximum force (increased muscle recruitment) as earlier recruited muscle fibers fatigue

      3.Dynamic effort method - Lifting (throwing) a nonmaximal load with the highest attainable speed

Zatsiorsky, 1995


Resistance strength training

  • Training intensity can be estimated by:

    • Magnitude of the resistance

      % of best – 80% of 1RM load

    • Number of reps per set (10reps)

    • Number of reps or % with maximal resistance (10RM or max reps at 80% 1RM)

      HOWEVER……..

  • Exercising at varying levels of resistance causes differences in metabolic reactions,intramuscular coordination,biomechanical variables and intermuscular coordination

Zatsiorsky, 1995


Resistance strength training

  • Note: Total amount of degraded protein is a function of both the mechanical work performed (i.e., total weight lifted) & the rate of protein catabolism.

  • Simply put – the more weight lifted over time the greater the protein breakdown (catabolism) and the greater potential for muscle rebuilding.

  • However, is this important in young athletes?

    • Remember that neural component is very large – learning to recruit the muscles

    • Post puberty we see the influx of hormones which allows us to maximize mass (hypertrophy) - particularly when training is between 5 – 6 & 10 – 12 RM.

Zatsiorsky, 1995


Resistance strength training

  • Maximal effort method:

    • Maximum # of MUs (motor units) activated with optimal discharge frequency

    • MU – includes the path from the brain to the muscle fibers recruited via the path

    • Train Considered superior for improving both intra (within the muscle) & intermuscular (between muscles) coordination

    • movement = 1 – 3 reps

    • OK for superior athletes … BUT several limitations, such as high risk of injury.

Zatsiorsky, 1995


Resistance strength training

  • Submaximal & Repeated effort methods:

    • These two types of lifts are similar in ability to induce muscle hypertrophy … BUT differ in respect to muscular strength and neuromuscular coordination

    • Submaximal

      enhancement of strength or specific intramuscular coordination (greatest method for safe lifting)

    • Repeated

      lifts are really useful for inducing hypertrophy particularly where max # of MUs are recruited! Fatiguing sets or failure.

Zatsiorsky, 1995


Long term development

Long-Term Development

Guidelines for training the young athlete


Laws of strength training bompa 2002

Laws of Strength TrainingBompa 2002

  • Law One: Develop Joint Flexibility

    achieving full range of motion at a joint allows for force production throughout the full range and reduces chance of injury and poor lifting techniques

  • Law Two: Develop Tendon Strength Before Muscle Strength

    muscle strength improves faster than tendon’s ability to withstand force – spend time in the anatomical (progressive) adaptation phase


Laws continued

……..laws continued.

  • Law Three: Develop Core Strength Before the Limbs

    Exercises should start from the core and work towards the extremities. The limbs are only as strong as the core. A strong core works as a platform in which the extremities work from.


Long term development1

Long Term Development

14

20+

18

AGE:

12

16

Foundational athletic skills

(Core strength, balance, agility, coordination, flexibility, general strength)

Advanced strength training methods

Teach lifting technique

Emphasize foundational athletic skills

Introduce strength exercises with dbells

Mastery of lifting technique

Basic strength training methods

Use all types of strength exercise

Introduce ballistic exercises

Develop lifting technique

Emphasize strength exercises with dbells

Introduce barbell exercises


Long term development2

Long Term Development

14

20+

18

AGE:

12

16

Circuit training

High repetitions

Timed sets

Barbell lifting technique with broom stick and light barbell

Keep repetitions above 10 RM

Barbell lifting technique with light to moderate loads

Keep repetitions above 6RM

Bodyweight in-place explosive training exercises

Execution of advanced lifting technique (Olympic Lifts)

Advanced lifting strategies

Weighted explosive training

Train to Train


Guidelines for strength training train to train

Guidelines for strength trainingTrain to Train

  • Design programs that focus on injury prevention. Focus on the hips, abs, low back, legs and shoulders.

  • Use circuit type training that involves 6-9 stations to develop basic strength – perform only 1-2sets.

  • Training session should be no longer than 15-20min with an increase up to 30min.

  • Design circuit so there is an alternation between body parts – i.e. legs, arms, back, abs

  • Focus should be on technique – de-emphasize competitive behavoir and reward individual improvement.


Example training session

Example Training Session


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