Cultural influences on relationship cultivation a cross cultural study in hong kong and singapore
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Cultural influences on relationship cultivation: A cross-cultural study in Hong Kong and Singapore. K. Sriramesh, Massey University, New Zealand Flora Hung, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. Purpose of Study.

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Cultural influences on relationship cultivation a cross cultural study in hong kong and singapore l.jpg

Cultural influences on relationship cultivation: A cross-cultural study in Hong Kong and Singapore

K. Sriramesh, Massey University, New Zealand

Flora Hung, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong


Purpose of study l.jpg
Purpose of Study cross-cultural study in Hong Kong and Singapore

  • To examine the influence of Chinese cultural value orientations on the perceived relationship cultivation strategies used by Police Forces in Hong Kong and Singapore toward their publics


Relationship cultivation strategies l.jpg

J. Grunig & Huang (2000), Hon & J. Grunig (1999), Hung (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

Openness or disclosure

Positivity

Access

Assurance of legitimacy

Networking

Sharing of task

Cooperating

Being unconditionally constructive

Saying win-win or no deal

Keeping promises

Being attentive

Education

Personal relationships

Organizational credibility

Adherence to cultural & relational rules

Visible leadership

Listening

Responsiveness

Continued dialogue

Respect

Face to face communication

Relationship cultivation strategies


Cultural influences on organization public relationships l.jpg
Cultural influences on organization-public relationships (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

  • Huang (2000, 2001a, 2001b) on guanxi, face, and favour.

  • Hung (2004):

    • Yang (1992)

      • Role Formalization: Five cardinal relationships (Wu Lun, 五倫) are emphasized

      • Relational Interdependence

      • Relational Harmony

      • Relational Fatalism

      • Relational Determination


Conceptualization l.jpg
Conceptualization (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

  • Chinese cultural values (Bond, 1987): values constituting the Chinese culture


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Previous Research Findings (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

Regression models were established by stepwise method, which probabilities of F to enter and remove are .05 and .01 respectively.


Cultural influences on organization public relationships7 l.jpg
Cultural influences on organization-public relationships (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

  • Hung & Chen (2008):

    • 8-factor model

      • Self discipline

      • Temperament

      • Hierarchical responsibility

      • Moral virtue

      • Social stability

      • Professional ethics

      • Relational reciprocation

      • Affective neutrality


Research questions l.jpg
Research Questions: (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

  • How do publics in Singapore and Hong Kong perceive the cultivation strategies from Police Forces in these 2 regions?

  • What are the relationship qualities between the Police Forces and their publics in these 2 regions?

  • How do relationship cultivation affect the relationship outcomes?

  • How do cultural values affect the perception of relationship cultivation?


Methods l.jpg

Quantitative surveys (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

A sample of publics in Hong Kong (n= 133) and Singapore (n= 191)

Gender:

Singapore: Male (80; 42.1%); Female (110; 57.9%)

Hong Kong: Male (55; 43.3%); Female (71; 55.9%)

Methods


Age singapore l.jpg
Age (Singapore): (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)


Age hong kong l.jpg
Age (Hong Kong): (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)


Contacts with police force singapore l.jpg
Contacts with Police Force (Singapore) (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)


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Contacts with Police Force (Hong Kong) (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)


Measurement cultivation strategies l.jpg

Being Unconditionally Constructive: .738 (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

Openness: .674

Networking: .666

Assurance: .732

Positivity: .666

Trust: .866

Commitment: .770

Satisfaction: .879

Communal Relationships: .707

Exchange Relationships: .872

Control Mutuality: .711

Measurement: Cultivation Strategies


Slide15 l.jpg

  • Cultural Value Scale (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

    • 30 values

    • Rank the importance of each item using a 7 Likert-type scale


Findings perception of cultivation strategies l.jpg
Findings: Perception of cultivation strategies (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

Singapore:

Hong Kong:


Relationship quality l.jpg
Relationship Quality (2002, 2006), Hung & Chen (2007), Rhee (2004) & H. Kim & Rhee (2006)

Singapore:

Hong Kong:


Results correlation between the cultivation strategies and relationship outcomes hong kong l.jpg
Results: Correlation between the cultivation strategies and relationship outcomes (Hong Kong)

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level


Results correlation between the cultivation strategies and relationship outcomes singapore l.jpg
Results: Correlation between the cultivation strategies and relationship outcomes (Singapore)

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level




Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion: relationship outcomes (Singapore)

  • All strategies in Singapore and Hong Kong were perceived to be used and participants did not have a strong perception of any particular strategy

  • Exchange relationships are more emphasized in Hong Kong; whereas most of the cultivation strategies show negative significance on exchange relationships in Singapore.

  • Similar to Hung and Chen (2008; in press), loyal to superiority has the effect on the perception of assurance of legitimacy in Hong Kong and Singapore, due to the social expectation of obedience to authority


Comparing singapore and hk findings l.jpg
Comparing Singapore and HK Findings relationship outcomes (Singapore)

  • Being unconditionally constructive: Loyal to superiority and reciprocating good wills

  • Openness: Loyal to superiority and patriotism

  • Assurance: Loyal to superiority


Cv cultivation strategies l.jpg
CV & Cultivation Strategies relationship outcomes (Singapore)

  • Overall, culture does not have a large effect on cultivation strategy perception.

  • Patriotism in Hierarchical responsibility is a predictor of most cultivation strategies from the Singapore data, which is consistent with the previous research.

  • Previous data showed the benevolent authority was an important predictor for access and positivity. This did not show in this study.


Implications l.jpg
Implications relationship outcomes (Singapore)

  • Contributing to the cultivation stage of relationship management.

  • Operationalizing the Chinese culture by its value orientations (substance) rather than Hofstede’s dimensions.

  • Not all cultural values affect public relations practices

  • Cultural value orientations serve as a useful tool for training multinational PR professionals with their strategic Chinese publics.


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