Project management
Download
1 / 36

Project Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 373 Views
  • Uploaded on

Project Management. Define project, project management, RAD, JAD Describe project management activities Describe the advantages, disadvantages and characteristics of SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) and prototyping Describe the phases of SDLC Describe project dimensions affecting risk

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Project Management' - Patman


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Project management l.jpg
Project Management

  • Define project, project management, RAD, JAD

  • Describe project management activities

  • Describe the advantages, disadvantages and characteristics of SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) and prototyping

  • Describe the phases of SDLC

  • Describe project dimensions affecting risk

  • Discuss integration and project management tools to use in dealing with risk

  • Discuss issues in managing behavioral factors


Project management2 l.jpg
Project Management

  • Project - temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service

    • may be divided into subprojects

  • Project management - application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project

    • T.A.N.S.T.A.A.F.L.


Project management activities l.jpg
Project Management Activities

  • Ensuring progress of project using metrics

  • Identifying risks and assessing the probability of them occurring

  • Ensuring progress toward deliverables within constraints of time and resources

  • Running coordination meetings of the project team

  • Negotiating for resources on behalf of the project


Project modeling l.jpg
Project Modeling

  • Common vocabulary (beyond data repository)

  • Teamwork

  • Cycle Plan

  • Management

    • Demonstrated in SDLC and other approaches

    • Project planning & requirements identification

    • Project control (status, corrective action)

    • Team management

    • Organizational integration


Development models l.jpg
Development Models

  • Systems Development Life Cycle

  • Rapid Applications Development (RAD)

  • Prototyping

  • Joint Applications Development (JAD) (like RAD with users)

  • Object-Oriented


Systems development life cycle sdlc l.jpg
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

  • Overview

  • Software Acquisition Choices

  • SDLC Overview

  • SDLC:Phases

  • Alternative Approaches


Sdlc prior problems l.jpg
SDLC - Prior Problems

  • Failure to meet:

    • Budgets

    • Schedules

    • Expectations

  • TOO LITTLE…. TOO LATE


Sdlc characteristics l.jpg
SDLC - Characteristics

  • “Problem” or “Opportunity”

  • Many names; Widely applicable

  • “Analysis” vs. “Synthesis”

  • Variance across stages

  • Disciplined approach

  • Systems approach

  • Iterative (not sequential)

  • Cyclical


Sdlc advantages l.jpg
SDLC - Advantages

  • Focus on tradeoffs

  • Focus on goals

  • Controls: milestones, checklist, accountability

  • Tools, models, CASE

  • Hierarchical decomposition

  • Designed for user & manager involvement


Sdlc reasons for failure l.jpg
SDLC - Reasons for Failure

  • Scope too broad or too narrow

  • Lack of needed skills

  • Incomplete specifications

  • No control/no framework

  • Lack of management/user involvement

  • Too time-consuming


Sdlc phases l.jpg
SDLC Phases

  • Initiation and Feasibility

  • Requirements Definition

  • Functional Design

  • Technical Design and Construction

  • Verification

  • Implementation

  • Maintenance & Review


I initiation feasibility l.jpg
I. Initiation & Feasibility

  • Project objectives & Scope

  • Preliminary survey & feasibility

    • Technical

    • Economic

    • Operational

  • Project proposal and schedule

  • Identify assumptions & constraints


Ii requirements definition l.jpg
II. Requirements Definition

  • Problem/Opportunity definition

  • Analyze current system

  • Focus on decisions and related information needs

  • Define business functionality

  • Plan for training, user acceptance


Problem opportunity definition l.jpg
Problem/Opportunity Definition

  • Symptoms vs. real problems

  • Question decision maker’s statement of problem

  • Bound problem realistically

  • Try to ascertain actual cause

  • Sometimes figuring out the problem is half the solution


Analyze current system l.jpg
Analyze Current System

  • + Understand activities involved

  • + Identify decision points

  • + Help identify problems & deficiencies

  • + Be aware of history

  • - Bias thinking


Iii functional design l.jpg
III. Functional Design

  • Focus on business needs

    • usability, reliability

  • Logical design

    • Outputs

    • Inputs

    • Presentation

    • Processes

    • Databases

    • Personnel


Iv technical design and construction l.jpg
IV. Technical Design and Construction

  • Finalize architecture and acquire hardware

  • Complete technical definition of data access and other system components

  • Make (program) vs. buy

  • Develop test plans

  • Revise schedule, plan and costs


V verification l.jpg
V. Verification

  • Program Testing

    • Structured walkthrough

    • Code inspection

    • Unit test

    • Pairs testing

  • Verification, stress, user and security testing


Vi implementation l.jpg
VI. Implementation

  • Cut-over

    • Parallel conversion

    • Direct cut-over

    • Pilot conversion

    • Phased conversion

  • User training


Vii maintenance and review l.jpg
VII. Maintenance and Review

  • Post-implementation audit

    • Ends - information requirements (information, performance)

    • Means - process

  • Maintenance (correcting bugs & scheduled maintenance)

  • Enhancement (adding functionality)


Rapid applications development rad l.jpg
Rapid Applications Development (RAD)

  • Like prototyping, uses iterative development

  • Uses tools to speed up development

    • GUI

    • reusable code

    • code generation

    • programming, language testing and debugging


Iterative development l.jpg
Iterative Development

System Concept

Version “1”

Version “2”

Version “N”

Software Development Process


Uses of prototyping l.jpg
Uses of Prototyping

  • Verifying user needs

  • Verifying that design = specifications

  • Selecting the “best” design

  • Developing a conceptual understanding of novel situations

  • Testing a design under varying environments

  • Demonstrating a new product to upper management

  • Implementing a new system in the user environment quickly


Prototyping l.jpg

Proposed Advantages

Improved user communication

Users like it

Low risk

Avoids over-design

Experimentation and innovation

Spreads labor to user department

Disadvantages in practice

Prototypes are used “as is”

Integration often difficult

Design flaws

Poor performance

Difficult to manage process

Creates unrealistic expectations

Documentation is difficult

Prototyping


Observed effects of prototyping l.jpg

ease of use (+)

user needs (+)

unrealistic user expectations (-)

added features (?)

poorer performance (-)

mixed design quality

mixed maintainability

less need

more difficult to do

effort decreased (+)

difficult cost-estimation (-)

end-user participation increased (+)

more expertise needed (-)

difficult planning & control (-)

Observed Effects of Prototyping

Software Product

Software Process


Examples of software risk items l.jpg
Examples of Software Risk Items

  • personnel shortfalls

  • unrealistic schedules/budgets

  • developing wrong functionality

  • developing wrong user interface

  • “gold plating”

  • continuing stream of requirements changes

  • shortfalls in externally furnished components

  • shortfalls in externally performed tasks

  • real-time performance shortfalls

  • strained technical capabilities


Project dimensions affecting risk l.jpg
Project Dimensions Affecting Risk

  • Project Size (relative to others)

    • Interchangeable man months

    • The pregnant lady

  • Experience with Technology

  • Project structure

    • High vs. Low

  • Complexity???




Tools for project management l.jpg
Tools for Project Management

  • External integration tools (beyond project team)

  • Internal integration tools ( within project team)

  • Formal planning tools

  • Formal results-control mechanisms


Integration tools l.jpg

EXTERNAL

User project manager

User specification approval process

User-managed control process

Users as team members

User responsibility for education&installation

INTERNAL

IT professional team leader

Frequent team meetings

Regular technical status reviews

Outside technical assistance

Goal setting by team

Integration Tools


Tools of project management l.jpg

Formal Planning Tools

PERT, CPM

Milestones

Systems specification standards

Feasibility study specifications

Project approval processes

Postaudit procedures

Formal Control Tools

Periodic formal status reports vs. plan

Change control disciplines

Regular milestone presentation meetings

Deviations from plan reports

Tools of Project Management




Slide35 l.jpg

Comparison of Software Acquisition Choices

Method

Cost

Risk

Meets Needs

Ease of Installation

Maintenance

Firm-Wide Impact

Packaged Applications

Low

Moderate

Low

Moderate

Limited

Moderate

Moderate

Limited

Customized Software

Moderate

High

Moderate

Limited

Extensive

Moderate

Moderate

Extensive

Limited

Extensive

Outsourced Development

Moderate

High

Moderate

Limited

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Limited

Extensive

Enterprise-Wide Systems

High

Moderate

High

Limited

Difficult

Complex

Moderate

Extensive

Extensive

In-House Development

High

Moderate

High

Extensive

Moderate

Extensive

Limited


Managing behavioral factors l.jpg
Managing Behavioral Factors

Balance goals of stakeholders

project manager

customer

end-user (there’s a difference)

sponsor

Sustain commitment

project

psychological (personal responsibility, biases)

social (rivalry, norms for consistency)

organizational (political support, culture)


ad