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International Environmental Problems and Policy. Office hours. PROFESSOR ZOLTÁN GROSSMAN 258 Phillips Hall 10:00-10:50 am MWF 836-4471 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.uwec.edu/grossmzc. Regions of the “World Village”. 333 East Asians 274 South Asians 132 Africans 120 Europeans

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International environmental problems and policy l.jpg

International EnvironmentalProblems and Policy


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Office hours

PROFESSOR ZOLTÁN GROSSMAN

258 Phillips Hall

10:00-10:50 am MWF

836-4471

E-mail: [email protected]

Web: www.uwec.edu/grossmzc


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Regions of the “World Village”

  • 333 East Asians

  • 274 South Asians

  • 132 Africans

  • 120 Europeans

  • 86 Latin Americans

  • 50 North Americans

  • 5 from Oceania


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Where we live

  • 452 in town

  • 548 in country


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Ages

  • 310 children

  • 70 elderly

  • 610 between


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Demographics

  • 22 children born

  • 9 people die

  • One-third of deaths are children under 5.

  • Numbers of elderly increasing rapidly.


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Human Population at 6 billion

  • Food shortages/famines

  • Water quality

  • Fossil fuel burning

  • Air and water pollution

  • Landscape destruction

  • Loss of biodiversity


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Languages

  • 500 speak one of six languages

    • Chinese

    • English

    • Hindi

    • Spanish

    • Russian

    • Arabic

  • 500 speak one of 6,000 languages


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Household income

  • Average annual income $4,890

  • 600 poor

  • 300 marginal

  • 100 well-off


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Ownership/consumption

  • 200 richest villagers own and consume 80% of goods

  • Other villagers own and consume remaining 20%



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Material World: A Global Family Portrait

Iceland

Guatemala

Japan


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Land use

  • Average of 6 acres for each person

    • 700 acres cropland

    • 1400 acres pasture

    • 1900 acres woodland

    • 2000 acres desert, other noneconomic land


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Land ownership

The richest 270 people control:

  • 40% of the cropland

  • 72% of the foodgrain

    but feeds 27% of the people

    – 83% of the fertilizer


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United States Population

  • 45 people live in U.S.

  • 955 live elsewhere


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United States Consumption

Oil 26%

Aluminum 24%

Copper 20%

Nickel 19%

Steel 13%


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United States Share of World Pollution

Toxic wastes 50%

Nitrogen oxides 26%

Carbon dioxide 26%

Sulfur oxides 25%

Chloroflurocarbons 22%


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Rich/poor divisions

  • Wealthy countries tend to be located in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • About 1/5 of world population live in countries with per capita income > $25,000.00 (U.S.).

    • Poor people exist here as well.

  • Gap between rich and poor continues to increase.

    • Wealthiest 200 people in the world have combined wealth of $1 trillion - more than total wealth of poorest half (3 billion) of the world’s population.


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Environmental challenges

  • Wealthy countries exploit natural resources

    in poor countries (often through corporations).

  • Elites in poor countries often cooperate with

    wealthy countries and interests.

  • Poor exploit natural resources, because socio-economic conditions (dictated by rich countries and domestic elites) create a struggle for survival.

  • Poor in wealthy countries also face economic blackmail.

    .


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Philadelphia Infant Mortality

Red area high than

at least 28 Third

World countries,

including:

Jamaica

Cuba

Costa Rica

Malaysia

Panama

Sri Lanka

South Korea

Taiwan

Uruguay

Argentina

Chile


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Adult Literacy

  • 310 adults can read and write

  • 310 adults cannot read or write

  • Girls half as likely as boys to attend school


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Access to TV

  • 10% without access

  • 90% with access


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Access to fresh water

  • 30% of rural residents without access

  • 7% of urban residents without access


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Women and girls

  • Two-thirds of manual labor

  • One-tenth of wages

  • One-hundredth of property

  • Make up 70% of the poor.


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Life expectancy

  • Not age lived to,

    but affected by infant mortality rates.

  • Richest familes:

    women 80, men 78

  • Poorest families:

    48 for both


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“North/South” Divisions

  • Poor countries tend to be located in Southern Hemisphere.

  • World Bank estimates more than 1.3 billion people (1/5 world population) live in acute poverty of < $1 (U.S.) per day.

    • 70% women and children

    • Self-Sustaining

      • Daily survival necessitates over-harvesting resources thus degrading chances of long-term sustainability.


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Former world “divisions”

  • First World - Industrialized, market-oriented democracies of Western Europe, North America.

  • Second World - Centrally-planned socialist countries such as former USSR.

  • Third World - Ex-colonial nations such as

    India, Malaysia, Iran, etc.

  • Fourth World - Poorest nations (and indigenous communities within wealthy nations).


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Current world system

  • Core - Industrialized, market-oriented democracies of Western Europe, North America,

    East Asia, Australia.

  • Periphery - Poor, ex-colonial nations such as

    Kenya, Bolivia, Pakistan, etc.

  • Semi-periphery - Partially industrialized

    ex-colonial nations (South Africa, Brazil,

    Mexico, South Korea, etc.)


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Indigenous peoples

  • Indigenous (Native) people are often least powerful, most neglected people in the world.

    • At least half the world’s 6,000 distinct languages are dying.

    • Indigenous homelands may harbor vast percentage of world’s biodiversity.

    • Recognizing Native land rights and political rights may often be a solid ecological safeguard.

    • Who is “Indigenous”?


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Human Development Index

  • United Nations releases Human Development Index (HDI). Based on social factors - ranges from 0-1.0.

    • In 2000: Canada had highest with 0.96 and Sierra Leone had lowest with 0.19.

  • Aggregate numbers hide many important

    inequity issues:

    • Gender

    • Race


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Sustainable Development

  • “Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

  • Benefits must be available to all humans, not just sub-set of privileged group.

  • Economists: continual growth for people

  • Ecologists: non-renewable resources, limited waste capacity


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Signs of hope

  • Progress had been made on many fronts.

    • Population has stabilized in many industrialized countries; population growth slowing in others.

    • Incidence of life-threatening diseases has been reduced in some countries.

    • Average life expectance nearly doubled.


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World Summit onSustainable Development

  • Johannesburg, South Africa, Aug.-Sept. 2002

  • Ten years after 1992 Earth Summit in

    Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Rio + 10).

  • International grassroots NGOs

    used as opportunity for networking.


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Earth Summit 2002

www.earthsummit2002.org

UN site

www.johannesburgsummit.org

Linkages

www.iisd.ca/wssd/portal.html

Radio Earth Summit

http://www.radioearthsummit.org/

Girona Declaration

http://www.xs4all.nl/~ceo/un/gironadecl.html

Global Indaba

www.globalindaba.org.za

Independent Media Center

http://southafrica.indymedia.org/

WSSD websites



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