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MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers. What Constitutes Ethical Behavior?. MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers. “Do the Right Thing”. MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers Recap of Session 3. Continued the Ethics Journey More Ethics Issues “In the News”

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MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers

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MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers

What Constitutes Ethical Behavior?


MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers

“Do the Right Thing”


MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology ManagersRecap of Session 3

  • Continued the Ethics Journey

  • More Ethics Issues “In the News”

  • The Relevancy Scale

  • The Tylenol Story

  • The Business Value of Ethics/Integrity

  • Assignment 2: The Final Voyage of the Challenger


MSETM 5110 -  Ethics for Technology Managers

Are There Dueling Agendas?

  • Competitive vs. Ethical Conduct

  • Flexibility/Adaptability vs. Sound Business Practice

  • Binary vs. Degrees of ("Bend But Don't Break")

  • Company/Organizational Values vs. Personal Value System

  • Defining Right vs. Expedient


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology Managers

Credibility

  • Principle Centered

  • Reputation

  • Relationship


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology Managers

Discipline and Commitment


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology Managers

Strict Adherence vs. Spirit and Intent

True North vs. Magnetic North


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology Managers

More Examples of Codes of Conduct and Values Statements


MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers

Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice

of the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®

Effective January 1, 2002

Preamble…

Under all is the land. Upon its wise utilization and widely allocated ownership depend the survival and growth of free institutions and of our civilization. REALTORS® should recognize that the interests of the nation and its citizens require the highest and best use of the land and the widest distribution of land ownership. They require the creation of adequate housing, the building of functioning cities, the development of productive industries and farms, and the preservation of a healthful environment.

Such interests impose obligations beyond those of ordinary commerce. They impose grave social responsibility and a patriotic duty to which


MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers

Preamble…(cont’d.) NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS

REALTORS should dedicate themselves, and for which they should be diligent in preparing themselves. REALTORS, therefore, are zealous to maintain and improve the standards of their calling and share with their fellow REALTORS a common responsibility for its integrity and honor.

In recognition and appreciation of the obligations to clients, customers, the public, and each other, REALTORS continuously strive to become and remain informed on issued affecting real estate and, as knowledgeable professionals, they willingly share the fruit of their experience and study with others. They identify and take steps, through enforcement of this Code of Ethics and by assisting appropriate regulatory bodies, to eliminate practices which may damage the public or which might discredit or bring dishonor to the real estate profession. REALTORS having direct personal knowledge of conduct that may violate the Code of Ethics involving misappropriation of client or customer funds


MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers

Preamble…(cont’d.) NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS

or property, willful discrimination, or fraud resulting in substantial economic harm, bring such matters to the attention of the appropriate Board of Association of REALTORS. (Amended 1/00)

Realizing the cooperation with other real estate professionals promotes the best interests of those who utilize their services, REALTORS urge exclusive representation of clients; do not attempt to gain any unfair advantage over their competitors; and they refrain from making unsolicited comments about other practitioners. In instances where their opinion is sought, or where REALTORS believe that comment is necessary, their opinion is offered in an objective, professional manner, uninfluenced by any personal motivation or potential advantage or gain.

The term REATORS has come to connote competency, fairness, and high integrity resulting from adherence to a lofty ideal of moral conduct in


MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers

Preamble…(cont’d.) NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS

Business relations. No inducement of profit and no instruction from clients ever can justify departure from this ideal.

In the interpretation of this obligation, REALTORS can take no safer guide than that which has been handed down through the centuries, embodied in the Golden Rule, “Whatsoever ye would that others should do to you, do ye even so to them.”

Accepting this standard as their own, REALTORS pledge to observe its spirit in all of their activities and to conduct their business in accordance with the tenets set forth below.

(Duties to Clients and Customers)


MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology ManagersWal-Mart

THE WAL-MART CULTURE

The principles and practices used by Sam Walton are still being used today. The secret of our culture to success and growth:

  • Sam Walton’s 3 Basic Beliefs:

    • Respect for the Individual

    • Service to Our Customers

    • Strive for Excellence

  • Exceeding Customer Expectations

  • Helping People Make A Difference


MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology ManagersWal-Mart (cont’d.)

THE WAL-MART CULTURE (cont’d.)

  • Rules for Building A Business

  • Sundown Rule

  • Ten Foot Rule

  • Pricing Philosophy

  • The Mart Cheer


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology Managers

Communication. Respect. Integrity. Excellence.

Enron Values Statement

2000 Annual Report


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology Managers General Electric

VALUES

Unyielding Integrity, Commitment to Performance and Thirst for Change


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersPhillip Morris Companies

Listening, Learning and Changing: The Path to Corporate Responsibility at Phillip Morris Companies

(Rotary Club of Fresno - July 15, 2002)

David P. Nicoli

Vice President, Corporate Affairs Strategy and Social Responsibility

Phillip Morris Management Corporation

--------------------------------------

Phillip Morris Companies is actually a holding company whose businesses make up the world’s largest consumer packaged goods company.

We own Phillip Morris U.S.A., the nation’s largest cigarette manufacturer; Phillip Morris International, one of the largest


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersPhillip Morris Companies (cont’d.)

(cont’d.)

international cigarette manufacturers; and Kraft Foods, the nation’s largest food company, and the second largest in the world.

We are a Fortune 10 global company with 169,000 employees worldwide and operations in about 100 countries.

First, we are working to create a values-based culture; one in which we demonstrate integrity, honesty, respect and tolerance.

To do it right, we have to hardwire integrity into our food and tobacco businesses at every level so that each individual, from our CEO to our factory workers, takes responsibility of doing the right thing.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersPhillip Morris Companies (cont’d.)

Last year, Phillip Morris Companies appointed a Chief Compliance Officer. His job is to make sure that every employee worldwide has the information, training and tools to live up to our commitment to responsible behavior.

Later this year, he will take the lead in introducing an expanded Corporate Code of Conduct enterprise-wide.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersPhillip Morris Companies(cont’d.)

But to go beyond compliance and drive integrity into everything we do, he is reinforcing that code by helping management and employees focus on four key questions before making a significant business decision:

  • Is it legal?

  • Is it consistent with company policy?

  • Is it right?

  • And how would it look to the outside world?


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersBiogen

Biology has entered the “post-genomics” era. We believe the significance of the mapping of the human genome will surpass that of the original genetic-engineering revolution of the 1970s. This will lead to more efficient identification of breakthrough biological molecules and targeted drug design from which the next generation of biopharmaceutical drugs will emerge.

Currently, scientists understand the function and importance of only about 10 percent of the genes in the human genome. During the next decade, we anticipate an extraordinary amount of new information will become available.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersBiogen(cont’d.)

We believe that Biogen, with its extraordinary depth of experience in Biological research, is uniquely positioned to be among the companies that figure out which genes are therapeutically useful and commercially valuable. Our core research strength is the rapid discovery of new drug candidates by capitalizing on our biology expertise to accelerate the elucidation of gene function.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersBiogen (cont’d.)

OUR VISION & VALUES

Vision

We dedicate ourselves daily to improving the lives of people around the world.

  • Our imagination and our passion for science drive us to discover. We will unlock the secrets of human biology—finding answers that promise new hope in humanity’s quest to prevent and cure disease.

  • Our determination and discipline deliver results. We will deliver breakthrough medicines that transform the practice of healthcare..so people can lead longer, healthier, happier lives.

  • Our success has no limits. We will build a sustainable enterprise by continuously delivering superior value to patients, customers, shareholders, employees, business partners, and the communities where we work and live.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersBiogen (cont’d.)

OUR VISION & VALUES

Shared Values

These shared values describe our Company’s culture: Who we are and how we act in pursuit of our vision, mission and strategy. Our shared values represent standards for assessing our behavior and performance. They also describe how we aspire to work together and to lead. Biogen’s success is based on it’s people, and every person here is expected to be a leader. The core of leadership—integrity, courage, and teamwork—are characteristics we seek in every Biogen employee.

  • Keep talent the priority…attract, develop, and retain only the highest quality people, those who have the best minds and share our values…encourage each person’s development and take responsibility for your own.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersBiogen (cont’d.)

OUR VISION & VALUES

Shared Values (cont’d.)

  • Value each individual…recognize there are differences in people…look for the diverse ways each person can contribute to our success…commit to a safe work environment for all Biogen employees…treat everyone with respect and dignity…help others succeed, even at some cost to yourself.

  • Communicate and obtain alignment…assure that our values, our strategy and our goals are consistent…vigorously pursue the interdependent goals of world-class science and success…talk to people face-to-face about our business priorities and our values…use plain language.

  • Face the facts…tell the truth, even when it appears to be difficult, and expect nothing less from others…admit mistakes…accept criticism and use it to improve…learn from anyone, any place…be intolerant of arrogance.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersBiogen (cont’d.)

OUR VISION & VALUES

Shared Values (cont’d.)

  • Make an impact…assume your responsibilities are a starting point, not a limitation…take initiative…strive for speed and the highest quality in all that you do.

  • Build teams…support teamwork within and across functional and geographical boundaries…play whatever role is required to get the job done…share information openly, up, down, and across the organization.

  • Operate a meritocracy…empower people…set aggressive performance standards and hold yourself and others accountable for meeting them…assure that rewards are directly linked to performance, not to seniority, position level, or title…resist adding layers, and the unnecessary controls and lack of trust that accompany bureaucracy.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersBiogen (cont’d.)

OUR VISION & VALUES

Shared Values (cont’d.)

  • Embrace change…see change as an opportunity, not a threat…recognize the need for flexibility…deal positively with ambiguity and uncertainty, yet maintain a sense of urgency and commitment to results…keep the organization alive and fluid.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersLockheed Martin

CORPORATE ETHICS

Ethics: The Essence of Our Business

Business without ethics is not the kind of business we want to be in. Business with ethics improves, strengthens, and clarifies all we do. Ethics gives all our efforts a solid foundation and makes working at—and with—Lockheed Martin a pleasure.

Our Ethical Principles:

Honesty – To have the courage to speak our truth, and to be absolutely forthright in all cases, with our customers, co-workers, suppliers, communities, and shareholders.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersLockheed Martin (cont’d.)

CORPORATE ETHICS

Our Ethical Principles: (cont’d.)

Integrity – To say precisely what we mean, and to deliver what and when we promise. To be willing to raise and address difficult issues that may affect safety, performance, or legal responsibility. To forthrightly admit error and make amends where appropriate.

Responsibility – To speak out without fear of reprisal to call attention to any workplace violation of law, safe design and engineering standards, ethical codes, community standards, sexual harassment, equality, diversity, health, safety, and related issues.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersLockheed Martin (cont’d.)

CORPORATE ETHICS

Our Ethical Principles: (cont’d.)

Trust – To recognize our position as stewards of our customers’ businesses. To place the best of our thinking, energies and abilities into supporting customer enterprises. To be willing to raise issues if customer practices are not in alignment with our ethics policies.

Respect – To value the differences as well as similarities in all of our customers, co-workers, suppliers, communities, and shareholders. To support and assist minority candidates in their endeavors, so that the Corporation reflects national diversity.

Citizenship – To obey all the laws of any country in which we do business, to respect environmental concerns, and to give back to the communities by improving and enriching community life.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersMcDonald’s

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

The principle of giving back runs deep at McDonald’s—instilled in us nearly 50 years ago by our founder, Ray Kroc. It is a part of our culture.

We are committed…

  • To doing what is right.

  • To being a good neighbor and partner in your community.

  • To conducting our business with the environment in mind.

    We are committed to making the world a better place and to providing socially responsible leadership in every community where we do business.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersMcDonald’s (cont.d)

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Community

Examples of our contributions to local community development, our involvement in disaster relief, and our support for education. Also highlights some of the great work of the Ronald McDonald House Charities.

Environment

Our worldwide recycling, resource conservation, and waste reduction programs.

Marketplace

Our work with our suppliers to improve animal welfare, ensure quality and safety, and promote protection of workers’ health, safety, and human rights.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersMcDonald’s (cont.d)

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

People

Our commitment and approach to diversity; Hamburger University (our premier training facility); and our People Promise to our employees.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersFord Motor Company

CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP

As we endeavor to become a leading contributor to a more sustainable world, corporate citizenship has become an integral part of every decision and action we take. We believe corporate citizenship is demonstrated in who we are as a company, how we conduct our business and how we take care of our employees, as well as in how we interact with the world at large. It is our aspiration to be among the most respected, admired, and trusted companies in the world.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersGeneral Motors Company

CORE VALUES & GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Winning With Integrity

These guidelines for employee conduct demonstrate GM’s commitment to integrity and cover the subjects of personal integrity, integrity in the workplace, integrity in the marketplace, and integrity in society and its communities.

Antibribery and Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) – Conducting business globally poses special challenges. Employees are cautioned against accepting illegal or unethical conduct such as demands for bribes in other cultures simply because they are considered “common” or customary.” The basic guidelines of the FCPA and GM policy are described and explained.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersGeneral Motors Company (cont’d.)

CORE VALUES & GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Winning With Integrity (cont’d.)

Conflict of Interest – GM employees have a duty to the company to give their best effort and to remain loyal to the interests of the company. Examples highlight the potential for conflicts in investment oppor-tunities, charitable activities, public service, supplier relationships and outside employment.

Export Controls – All products and technical data are likely to fall under export control rules, a complicated area of law and taxation. Employees are encouraged to seek expertise whenever they are in doubt about an exporting activity, even if it’s something as simple as traveling overseas with a laptop computer.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersGeneral Motors Company (cont’d.)

CORE VALUES & GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Winning With Integrity (cont’d.)

Gifts, Entertainment and Gratuities – Employees are guided through the rules for receiving gifts, entertainment or other gratuity from suppliers and others.

Integrity of Our Information and Property – GM’s information related to its business, products, and innovations is a valuable asset and protecting it is the shared responsibility of all GM employees. Careful and accurate record keeping is discussed, as are the hazards of giving technical papers, working with media and making careless conversation in social situations.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology ManagersGeneral Motors Company (cont’d.)

CORE VALUES & GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Winning With Integrity (cont’d.)

Integrity in the Workplace – GM’s work culture depends on teamwork and diversity. This booklet offers guidance on managing diversity and treating co-workers with fairness and equality.

Personal Integrity – The essential traits of integrity—honesty, trustworthiness, respect for the law and respect for others—are a matter of each employee’s personal conduct on the job. Guidance is offered on maintaining this integrity.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology Managers

Ethics: The One-Company Approach

Policy on Gifts, Gratuities, and Business Entertainment?

  • Local?

  • Regional?

  • Worldwide?


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology Managers

The Three-Part Challenge to Business Ethics:

  • Developing managers as moral individuals;

  • Building an environment in which standards and values are central to the company’s strategy, just as economic purpose is;

  • Formulating and implementing policies that support ethical performance—as well as safeguards to assure that they are observed.

    Kenneth R. Andrews, Ethics in Practice, HBR 89501.


MSETM 5110 - Ethics for Technology Managers

Why Ethics?

  • Makes Good Business Sense

  • Establishes a Governance Process for Expected Behavior and Desired Culture

  • Enhances/Perpetuates Morale

  • Protects the Public Health, Safety, and Welfare

  • Meets Shareholder/Stakeholder Expectations

  • Assures Viability/Sustainability of the Organization

  • Legal Compliance


MSETM 5110 – Ethics for Technology Managers

Due Date

Assignment “0”- Personal Profile8/28/02

Assignment 1- Read HBR Articles:

  • George Iwaki and Oscar Hauptman, Final Voyage of the Challenger.

  • Trevino, et al., Managing Ethics and Legal Compliance: What Works and What Hurts.

  • Paine, Managing for Organizational Integrity.

    Assignment 2 - 9/18/02

    In approximately 400 words, critique the decision process to launch the Challenger, including the respective roles of the engineers and management team. What would you have done differently?


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