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International Training Centre. Programming and Project Formulation Wokshop Manila Sep 30-Oct 4, 2002. International Training Centre. Day Two: Methods and Tools for Project Formulation. Methods and Tools. Methods and Tools for Project Formulation. Problem Tree Analysis

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International Training Centre

Programming and Project Formulation Wokshop


Sep 30-Oct 4, 2002

International Training Centre

Day Two:

Methods and Tools

for Project Formulation

Methods and tools for project formulation

Methods and Tools

Methods and Tools for Project Formulation

  • Problem Tree Analysis

  • Stakeholder Analysis

  • Logical Framework Analysis

  • Goal-Oriented Project Planning (ZOPP)

1 the problem tree

Methods and Tools

1. The Problem Tree

Purpose:toidentify major problems and their main causal relationships.

Output:a graphical arrangement of problems differentiated according to ‘causes’ and ‘effects

Core problem approach

Methods and Tools

Core Problem Approach

  • Identify a “core” or central problem

  • List all the problems related to or stemming from the core problem

  • Determine which related problems are causes and which are effects of the core problem

  • Arrange the problems in a cause-effect heirarchy around the core problem

Problem tree example

Methods and Tools

Problem Tree Example

From problems to objectives

Methods and Tools

From Problems to Objectives

The Problem Tree provides the basis for:

a) the identification of specific project objectives (by converting problems or constraints into specific objectives)

b) the definition of project activities and outputs (by substituting cause-effect relationships with means-end relationships)

Problem tree analysis

Methods and Tools

Problem Tree Analysis

Relies on:

  • Group-based inter-action eg. Workshop format

  • Participation of key stakeholders

  • Process facilitation

  • Achieving consensus on problems, causes and effects

2 stakeholder analysis

Methods and Tools

2. Stakeholder Analysis


  • to identify those groups who, directly or indirectly, will affect or be affected by a project.

  • To determine, through consultation, the issues, concerns and information needs of different stakeholders

  • To estimate the probable impact which various stakeholders will have on the project

  • To identify measures to enhance stakeholder support for the sustainable development objectives of the project.

What is a stakeholder

Methods and Tools

What is a Stakeholder?

  • Any group within or outside a project that has a stake in the project’s activities and/or outcomes.

Categories of project stakeholders

Methods and Tools

Categories of Project Stakeholders

  •        Government

  •        Local Authorities

  •        Vulnerable groups

  •        Employers

  •        Workers

  •        NGOs

Importance of stakeholder analysis

Methods and Tools

Importance of Stakeholder Analysis

Stakeholder Analysis promotes the three necessary conditions for the effective implementation of a project.

  • Awareness/Comittment: that stakeholders understand and believe in the objectives and implementation strategy of the project.

  • Capability: that stakeholders believe they can cope with and benefit from the changes which the project is intended to bring

  • Inclusion: thatstakeholders feel they are valued, consulted and part of the change process which the project represents

Conducting a stakeholder analysis

Methods and Tools

Conducting a Stakeholder Analysis

Step 1: Identify and Categorize Project Stakeholders:

  • Identify project stakeholders (including local institutions, community interest groups, suppliers etc.) and then divide them amongst the categories mentioned earlier.

Step 2

Methods and Tools

Step 2

Create a Probable Character Profile for each Stakeholder by seeking answers to questions like:

  • What is the importance of the stakeholders for the project?

  • What does the stakeholder demand of the project?

  • What are the expected goals of the stakeholders?

Step 3

Methods and Tools

Step 3

Identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of the Stakeholders to the Project (SWOT)

  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the stakeholders?

  • As a consequence, what are the opportunities and threats of the external environment?

Step 4

Methods and Tools

Step 4

Identify the main individuals/groups of Stakeholders who need special attention and propose specific measures in a summary table:

Alternative stakeholder analysis technique

Methods and Tools

Alternative Stakeholder Analysis Technique


(Draw up a Chart on a whiteboard or flipchart)

Draw up a chart

Att=attitude   Inf=influence   E=estimate   C=confidence

B list stakeholders

Methods and Tools

 b)  List stakeholders

  • Identify and list the stakeholders (individuals, or stakeholder groups, or both) 

  • Transfer them to the left hand column of the chart in order of (perceived) importance

C estimate attitude and confidence

Methods and Tools

c) Estimate Attitude and Confidence

  • Column 2:Record your best estimate of the stakeholder's attitude, from fully supportive to fully opposed.  eg. from +5 to –5

  • Column 3:Record your level of confidence in this estimate eg. From 1 (fully confident) to 5 (wild guess)

D estimate influence and confidence

Methods and Tools

   d) Estimate Influence and Confidence

  • Repeat (3) for Stakeholder’s perceived influence on the project

E plan strategies

Methods and Tools

 e)  Plan Strategies

  • Plan your strategies for approaching and involving each person or group. 

  • The estimates in columns 2 to 5 help you to do this. 

  • Your strategy is written in column 6.  It usually takes the form of obtaining more information, or of involving the stakeholder in the planning of project activities

3 logical framework analysis

Methods and Tools

3. Logical Framework Analysis

Q: What is Logical Framework Analysis?

A:An analytical tool to assist project specialists and stakeholders in conceptualising:

  • the objectives of a project;

  • the means whereby these objectives will be achieved

  • how progress towards achieving objectives will be measured and,

  • the underlying assumptions and risks which will be faced

The logframe matrix

Methods and Tools

The LogFrame Matrix

  • The Logical Framework Approach uses a matrix or LogFrame to present information about project objectives, outputs and activities in a concise, logical and systematic way.

  • The basic Log Frame matrix contains 16 cells organized into 4 columns and 4 rows, as indicated in the next slide:

The logframe matrix1
The LogFrame Matrix

Methods and Tools

The lfa process

Methods and Tools

The LFA Process

  • Logical framework analysis is an iteritive process which seeks to promote clear conceptual thinking on what a project intends to do and how it intends to do it.

  • It is “logical” in the internal relationship between project objectives, outputs, activities (and inputs)

  • It is based on a consultative process between project authorities, beneficiaries and stakeholders

Steps in constructing a logframe

Methods and Tools

Steps in Constructing a LogFrame

  • Step 1: Define the Overall Goal to which your project contributes ie. Development Objective

  • Step 2: Define the Purpose(s) to be achieved by the project (Immediate objectives)

  • Step 3: Define the Outputs for achieving this Purpose

Step 4: Define the Activities for achieving each Output

Step 5: Define the Assumptions under which success in achieving the objective of one level will contribute to achieving objectives at the next level

Step 6: Define the Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVI) at Goal, Purpose, Output and Activity levels.

Step 7: Define the Means of Verification (MOV) ie. the source(s) of information for each indicator

Methods and Tools

Why use logical framework analysis

Methods and Tools

Why Use Logical Framework Analysis?

  • Because it demands clear thinking at the conceptual stage of project formulation

  • Because it brings together in one place a statement of all the key components of a project

  • Because it presents them in a systematic, concise and coherent way

Because it separates out the various levels in the hierarchy of objectives, outputs and activities helping to ensure that they are not confused with each other

Because it identifies the main factors related to the success of the project

Because it provides a basis for monitoring and evaluation project success

… and because 9 out of 10 donors prefer it!

Methods and Tools

Limitations of the lfa

Methods and Tools of objectives, outputs and activities helping to ensure that they are not confused with each other

Limitations of the LFA

  • It is not a substitute for other technical, economic, social and environmental analyses. It cannot replace the use of professionally qualified and experienced staff.

  • Rigidity in project management may arise when objectives and external factors specified during design are over emphasised.

It requires a team process with good leadership and facilitation skills to be effective.

The whole culture of the Logical Framework can be alien in some societies.

Tips when filling in a logframe

Methods and Tools facilitation skills to be effective.

Tips When Filling in a LogFrame

  • start at the top and work down the first column (what do you want to do?)

  • then think horizontally: how can I measure the progress of what I want to do and what sources of info do I need?)

  • then reflect back up (under what assumptions will success at one level contribute to (or detract from) success at the next level?

4 goal oriented project planning zopp

Methods and Tools facilitation skills to be effective.

4.Goal Oriented Project Planning: ZOPP

  • Zopp is a systematic structure for identification, planning, and management of projects

  • Applied through iterative workshops with project authorities, beneficiaries and stakeholders

  • Utilizes problem analysis and stakeholder analysis to create a project planning matrix or logical project framework

Stages in the zopp process

Methods and Tools facilitation skills to be effective.

Stages in the ZOPP Process

  • Pre-ZOPP: in-house exercise by agencies in preparation for a project.

  • Appraisal ZOPP: in-house appraisal for preparing Project TORs

  • Partner ZOPP: in-country; presentation and discussion of previous phase conclusions and recommendations with staff of project country

  • Take-off ZOPP: in-country; preparation of the plan of operations with personnel responsible for project execution and counterpart authorities.

  • Re-planning ZOPP: prepared in-country; adjustments during project implementation.

Zopp workshops

Methods and Tools facilitation skills to be effective.

Zopp Workshops

  • last from 1 day to 2 weeks(avg. 1 week)

  • participants selected to represent all interest groups

  • basic premise: main interest groups must be represented from all levels

  • exercise requires a facilitator with a high degree of experience and skill

Ws content and methodology

Methods and Tools facilitation skills to be effective.

WS Content and Methodology

Based on a series of analysis and planning exercises comprising:

i) Analysis

  • Participant analysis: (interests, motives, attitudes and implications for project)

  • Problem analysis: major problems grouped into a problem-tree with cause and effect and identification of the core problem

  • Objectives analysis: a restatement of the problems into realistically achievable goals;

  • Alternatives analysis: assessment of alternative objectives according to resources, feasibility, cost-benefit ratio, social risks, sustainability and other factors as decided by group. Prepared on charts.

Zopp s project planning matrix ppm

Methods and Tools facilitation skills to be effective.

ZOPP’s Project Planning Matrix (PPM)

The PPM is a Logframe Matrix. It is central to ZOPP-based project work because the process of building it relies on repeated, collaborative stakeholder input. The PPM It is a one-page summary of:

  • why the project is carried out,

  • what the project is expected to achieve,

  • how the project is going to achieve these results,

  • factors crucial for the success of the project,

  • how can success be measured,

  • where data is needed to assess project success,

  • what the project will cost.

Zopp s iterative workshops

Methods and Tools facilitation skills to be effective.

ZOPP’s Iterative Process

ZOPP’s Iterative Workshops

  • ZOPP is not a oneshot exercise;

  • Each plannng phase has a specific goal

  • Each goal is the subject of a workshop

  • Each workshop comprised of different stakeholders

  • Participants analyse key issues throughout the project cycle.

  • No set formula for successful workshop.

  • All need to create common language and understand one another divergent views


Methods and Tools facilitation skills to be effective.



Collaboration is not "automatically" part of the ZOPP process. The project team, borrower/donor, and stakeholders must commit to adopting a participatory stance for the overall project; otherwise, the ZOPP process is merely an organizing tool.