Module 2 Introduction
Download
1 / 35

DrugEpi 2-1 Overview of PPT and In the News - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 242 Views
  • Uploaded on

Module 2 Introduction Context Content Area: Hypothesis Generation Essential Question (Generic): What hypotheses might explain the distribution of health-related events or states? Essential Question (Drug Abuse Specific): What hypotheses might explain drug abuse?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'DrugEpi 2-1 Overview of PPT and In the News' - Patman


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

Module 2 Introduction

Context

Content Area: Hypothesis Generation

Essential Question (Generic): What hypotheses might explain the distribution of health-related events or states?

Essential Question (Drug Abuse Specific): What hypotheses might explain drug abuse?

Enduring Epidemiological Understanding: Clues for formulating hypotheses can be found by observing the way a health-related condition or behavior is distributed in a population.

Synopsis

In Module 2, students explore how descriptive epidemiological information on person, place, and time (PPT) are used to generate hypotheses to explain “why” a health-related event or state has occurred. Students begin to uncover and develop the following epidemiological concepts and skills: evaluating PPT information; developing hypotheses to explain that distribution; understanding that there may be more than one credible hypothesis; and recognizing when a particular hypothesis does NOT explain the PPT information.

Lesson 2-1: Overview of PPT and What’s My Hypothesis?

Lesson 2-2: In the News

Lesson 2-3: Drug Abuse by “Person” Race / Ethnicity

Lesson 2-4: Drug Abuse by “Place” States in USA

Lesson 2-5: Drug Abuse by “Time” Boundary Effect


Slide2 l.jpg

  • Module 2 - Hypothesis Generation

  • Lesson 2-1 Overview of PPT and What’s My Hypothesis?

  • Content

  • Introduction to using person, place, and time (PPT) to describe how a disease or other health-related condition is described in a population

  • Definition of “hypothesis” and explanation of how PPT is used to generate “educated guesses” based on observation

  • Example of a catastrophic event, and another example of an emerging disease, that illustrate the usefulness of PPT and provide practice for students to identify person, place, and time characteristics and generate hypotheses

  • Big Ideas

  • Person, place, and time (PPT) describes a disease or other health-related condition in terms of “who, where, and when”

  • Hypotheses that are suggested by PPT try to explain “why” a disease is distributed as it is

  • PPT information often leads to more than one reasonable hypothesis

This project is supported by a Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award, Grant Number 1R24DA016357-01, from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health.


Slide3 l.jpg

Where are we?

Essential Questions

Enduring Understandings


Slide4 l.jpg

Review - Definition of Epidemiology

“… the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specific populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems.”


Slide5 l.jpg

Review - the Descriptive Part of Epidemiology

“… the study of the distribution and determinantsof health-related states or events in specific populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems.”


Slide6 l.jpg

Descriptive Epidemiology

Epidemiologic studies that are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population.


Slide7 l.jpg

PPT Sheet

Person:

Place:

Time:

Descriptive Epidemiology

Who?

Where?

When?


Slide8 l.jpg

PPT Sheet

Person:

Place:

Time:

Descriptive Epidemiology

Illicit Drug Use

AIDS

Influenza


Slide9 l.jpg

Definition of Hypotheses

An educated guess

An unproven idea, based on observation or reasoning, that can be supported or refuted through investigation


Slide10 l.jpg

Generate

Test

Descriptive Epidemiology

Analytical Epidemiology

Definition of Hypothesis

Insert slide in this lesson if you wish to give students context about hypothesis testing versus generating. This will be covered in Module 3

Hypothesis

An unproven idea, based on observation or reasoning, that can be supported or refuted through investigation

An educated guess


Slide11 l.jpg

Hypothesis Generation

2. Hypothesis Generation

2. What hypotheses might explain

the distribution of disease?

2. What hypotheses might explain

the distribution of drug abuse?


Slide12 l.jpg

Person, Place, and Time (PPT)

How is the disease or other health condition distributed?

Who?

Where?

When?


Slide13 l.jpg

Descriptive Epidemiology

Person (Who?)

Place (Where?)

Time (When?)

Sex

Age

Ethnicity

Occupation

Economic Group

Residence

Occupation

Being at Specific Events

Geographic Sites

Era

Year

Season

Day, Hour, etc.

Date of Onset

Duration








Slide20 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

A Mysterious Ailment

By Jerry Bishop, Staff Reporter of the Wall Street Journal

A mysterious, often fatal illness is breaking out in epidemic proportions among young homosexual men and drug users. More than 180 cases of the strange illness have been reported since last summer to the federal Center for Disease Control in Atlanta. As of last Friday, at least 74 of the victims have died. All the victims are men and 90% of them are either homosexual or bisexual. Many of the victims are drug users. The illness is characterized by months of fever, malaise, and drastic weight loss. In almost all cases the patients develop overwhelming infections of one or more of a dozen different viruses, bacteria or protozoa. The infecting microbes are types that do not ordinarily cause overt human disease. Many of the patients also develop a rare type of cancer. To the astonishment of medical scientists, most of the patients appear to have recently developed a defect in their immune systems that prevents them from fighting off infections. The infections are extremely difficult to control with antibiotics and antiviral drugs. "We are reasonably confident that this is, in fact, a new medical problem," said Dr. Harold Jaffe, an epidemiologist on a new task force organized by the Center for Disease Control to search for the cause of the illness. In an effort comparable to that launched last year to unravel the mystery of toxic shock syndrome, the center's task force is trying to find out whether a new germ has emerged or whether something in the environment has changed to account for the sudden outbreak of the illness. For example, the task force is checking into the use of sexual stimulants by the victims on the possibility these chemicals can impair the immune system and leave the user vulnerable to infections. Among such stimulants are chemicals that are inhaled. These include amyl nitrate sold in glass vials, known by the street name "poppers" and isobutyl nitrate sold as "liquid incense." First hints that some unusual illness was breaking out came earlier this year when researchers in New York and Los Angeles reported cases of both a rare kind of pneumonia and a rare cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma occurring in a few young men. The men were either homosexual or drug users or both. The disease center alerted doctors and health officials around the country last summer to the strange ailment. This week's New England Journal of Medicine, published today, devotes three articles to describing 19 of the patients, six of whom died. Publishing three lengthy articles on the same illness is unusual for the medical


Slide21 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

Descriptive Epidemiologic Clues

Person

Place

Time

Hypotheses



Slide23 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

Descriptive Epidemiologic Clues

Person

Place

Time

Young homosexual men

Large cities

180 cases since last summer

New York

Months of fever, malaise and drastic weight loss

Drug Users

Los Angeles

90% are bisexual or homosexual

Hypotheses


Slide24 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

Descriptive Epidemiologic Clues

Person

Place

Time

Young homosexual men

Large cities

180 cases since last summer

New York

Months of fever, malaise and drastic weight loss

Drug Users

Los Angeles

90% are bisexual or homosexual

Hypotheses

… a new germ has emerged ….

… something in the environment ….

… use of sexual stimulants ….


Slide25 l.jpg

Shaking Hands

Toilet seats

Poppers

Injection Needles

Mosquito Bites

Hypothesis Generation

Whistles


Slide26 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

Descriptive Epidemiologic Clues

Person

Place

Time

Young homosexual men

Large cities

180 cases since last summer

New York

Months of fever, malaise and drastic weight loss

Drug Users

Los Angeles

90% are bisexual or homosexual

Hypotheses

Shaking hands caused the mysterious ailment.


Slide27 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

Descriptive Epidemiologic Clues

Person

Place

Time

Young homosexual men

Large cities

180 cases since last summer

New York

Months of fever, malaise and drastic weight loss

Drug Users

Los Angeles

90% are bisexual or homosexual

Hypotheses

Sitting on toilet seats caused the mysterious ailment.


Slide28 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

Descriptive Epidemiologic Clues

Person

Place

Time

Young homosexual men

Large cities

180 cases since last summer

New York

Months of fever, malaise and drastic weight loss

Drug Users

Los Angeles

90% are bisexual or homosexual

Hypotheses

Poppers caused the mysterious ailment.


Slide29 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

Descriptive Epidemiologic Clues

Person

Place

Time

Young homosexual men

Large cities

180 cases since last summer

New York

Months of fever, malaise and drastic weight loss

Drug Users

Los Angeles

90% are bisexual or homosexual

Hypotheses

Using injection needles caused the mysterious ailment.


Slide30 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

Descriptive Epidemiologic Clues

Person

Place

Time

Young homosexual men

Large cities

180 cases since last summer

New York

Months of fever, malaise and drastic weight loss

Drug Users

Los Angeles

90% are bisexual or homosexual

Hypotheses

Mosquito bites caused the mysterious ailment.



Slide32 l.jpg

A Mysterious Ailment

Now No One Is Safe From

AIDS



Slide34 l.jpg

Re-Cap

  • Big Ideas in this Lesson (2-1)

  • Person, place and time (PPT) describes a disease or other health-related condition in terms of “who, where, and when”

  • Hypotheses that are suggested by PPT try to explain “why” a disease is distributed as it is

  • PPT information often leads to more than one reasonable hypothesis

This project is supported by a Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award, Grant Number 1R24DA016357-01, from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health.


Slide35 l.jpg

Next Lesson

DZ exercise

How is the “disease” (DZ) distributed?

Why?


ad