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Development of Theories of Crime. Past to present Francis Cullen & Robert Agnew (1999). Biological & Psychological Theories of Crime. The criminal Man: Cesare Lombroso (1911) Genetic drawbacks, born criminal; Positivism Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency: Glueck & Glueck (1950)

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development of theories of crime

Development of Theories of Crime

Past to present

Francis Cullen & Robert Agnew (1999)

biological psychological theories of crime
Biological & Psychological Theories of Crime
  • The criminal Man: Cesare Lombroso (1911)
    • Genetic drawbacks, born criminal; Positivism
  • Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency: Glueck & Glueck (1950)
    • Individual traits: hyperactivity, impulsivity, sensation seeking
  • Social Learning and Aggression: Albert Bandura (1973)
    • Aggression is reinforced and punished
  • Crime and Human Nature: Wilson & Herrnstein (1985)
    • Individual’s perception of the reward and costs of crime are influenced by individual traits and social environment
  • Pathways in the Life course to crime: Terrie E. Moffitt (1933)
    • Adolescent-limited offending, life course-persistent offending
the chicago school the city social disorganization and crime
The Chicago School: The City, Social Disorganization and Crime

Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas: Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay (1942)

    • Macro-level ecology of crime drawing from Burgess’s city map (zone in transition); breakdown of the social institutions (e.g., family disruption)
  • Community Social Disorganization and Crime: Robert Sampson and Byron Groves (1989)
    • Community varied in their informal social control
    • Macrostructural factors caused race-based inequality in urban ghetto; concentrated disadvantages
learning to be a criminal differential association subcultural and social learning theories
Learning to be a Criminal: Differential Association, Subcultural, and Social Learning Theories
  • A Theory of Differential Association: Edwin Sutherland and Donald Cressey (1960)
    • Individual commits crime because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to the violation.
  • Techniques of Neutralization: Gresham Sykes and David Matza (1957)
    • Denial of responsibility, injury, victim; the condemnation of condemners; the appeal to higher loyalties
  • A Social Learning Theory of Crime: Ronald Akers (1994)
    • Beliefs, reinforcement, imitation
  • The Thesis of a Subculture of Violence: Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti (1982)
  • The Code of the Streets: Elijah Anderson (1994)
anomie strain theories of crime
Anomie/Strain Theories of Crime
  • Social Structure and Anomie: Robert Merton (1938)
    • Strong emphasis on the goal; weak emphasis on the legitimate norms for achievement
  • Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang: Albert Cohen (1955)
    • Goal blockage; broader goals; rejection of middle class values
  • Delinquency and Opportunity: Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin (1960)
    • Criminal subcultures (theft); conflict subcultures (fighting); retreatist subcultures (drug use)
  • Crime and the American Dream: Richard Rosenfeld and Steven Messner (1995)
    • It’s not how you play the game; it’s whether you win or lose
  • A General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency: Robert Agnew (1992) - three sources of strain (prevent, remove, present)
varieties of control theory
Varieties of Control Theory
  • Social Bond Theory: Travis Hirschi (1969)
    • Why don’t they do it?; attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
  • A General Theory of Crime: Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi (1990)
    • Self-control theory; ineffective child-rearing
  • Crime and the Life Course: Robert Sampson and John Laub (1993)
    • Change, transition, life events (marriage, job)
  • A Power-Control Theory of Gender: John Hagan (1989)
    • Power relations between father and mother (patriarchal vs. egalitarian)
integrated theories of crime
Integrated Theories of Crime
  • An Integrated Theoretical Perspective on Delinquent Behavior: Elliott, et al (1979)
    • End-to-end strategy; strain, learning, control
  • Toward an Integrated Theory of Delinquency: Terence Thornberry (1987)
    • Developmental process, reciprocal effects
  • Social Support and Crime: Francis Cullen (1994)
    • Common theme (I.e., social support)
rational choice and routine activities theories
Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories
  • Crime and Punishment: an Economic Approach: Gary Becker (1968)
    • Number of offenses is a function of probabilies of arrest, severity
  • Crime as a Rational Choice: Derek Cornish and Ronald Clarke (1986)
    • Making of decisions and of choice as rationality
  • Routine Activity Theory: Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson (1979)
    • Motivated offender (given), suitable target (benefit), absence of guardian (cost)
labeling interaction and crime societal reaction and the creation of criminals
Labeling, Interaction, and Crime: Societal Reaction and the Creation of Criminals
  • Crime and the Community: Tannenbaum
    • Dramatization of Evil
  • Primary and Secondary Deviance: Edwin Lemert (1952)
  • Reflected Appraisals, Parental Labeling, and Delinquency: Ross Matsueda (1992)
    • Symbolic interactionism
  • Crime, Shame, and Reintegration: John Braithwaite (1989)
critical criminology power inequality and crime
Critical Criminology: Power, Inequality, and Crime
  • Criminality and Economic Conditions: William Adrian Bonger (1969)
    • Egoism, bourgeois crime, class character of penal law
  • Class, State, and Crime: Richard Quinney (1980)
    • Peacemaking criminology; social justice
  • Delinquency and the Age Structure of Society: David Greenberg (1977)
    • delinquency within historically structured conditions; masculine status anxiety
  • An Integrated Structural-Marxist Theory of Delinquency: Mark Colvin and John Pauly (1983)
    • Parents’ class position in labor market; coercive sanction
  • Social Capital and Crime: John Hagan (1994)
    • Social capital, cultural capital, recapitalization
feminist theories gender power and crime
Feminist Theories: Gender, Power, and Crime
  • Sisters in Crime: Freda Adler
  • Feminism and Criminology: Kathleen Daly and Meda Chesney-Lind
  • Masculinities and Crime: James Messerschmidt
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