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Chapter 13. North and South. Technology and Industry. By the mid 1800’s the north’s economy now featured industry Machinery now replaced many hand labor jobs Mass production, or producing a large number of goods using an assembly line , became popular. Railway Network.

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Chapter 13 l.jpg

Chapter 13

North and South

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Technology and Industry

  • By the mid 1800’s the north’s economy now featured industry

  • Machinery now replaced many hand labor jobs

  • Mass production, or producing a large number of goods using an assembly line, became popular

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Railway Network

  • By 1840, the North had some 3,000 miles of railroad track.

  • By 1860 it had 31,000 miles

  • Now goods and people could move faster and cheaper across the nation

  • The west could be settled faster as well (8th grade you will know more)

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  • Samuel Morse invented the telegraph, which communicated back and forth using dots and dashes representing the alphabet

  • By 1860, 50,000 miles of telegraph lines were built

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Other Inventions

  • Steel tipped Plow

  • Steam cylinder rotary press (printing press)

  • Mechanical reaper(made wheat harvesting faster)

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Northern Factories

  • In Lowell, Massachusetts, a factory system was created.

  • This system was not only for textiles anymore

  • Factories now produced shoes, watches, guns, sewing machines, and agricultural machinery (farm tools)

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Working Conditions

  • By 1840, the average workday was 11.4 hours

  • On the job accidents became more common

  • Workers often suffered injuries such as lost fingers and broken bones from rapidly spinning belts on factory lines

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Working Conditions 2

  • The machines gave off heat, and air conditioning had not been invented yet (summer conditions were terrible)

  • Because of low wages, workers were forced to live in slums outside factories (worst housing available)

  • Factory owners were more concerned with profits than the safety of the workers.

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African American Workers

  • Slavery had largely disappeared from the North by 1820.

  • Racial prejudice and discrimination (Unfair treatment of a group based on race) remained.

  • Very few African Americans were allowed to vote in the North. (Blacks could not vote in Penn, and R.I.)

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African Americans 2

  • Most towns would not allow blacks to attend public school

  • They were barred from some public facilities as well, (hospitals for example)

  • African Americans had to take the lowest paying jobs. Although free, blacks often did not advance in society. They were very poor, yet better off than in slavery

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Women Workers

  • Employers discriminated against women

  • Male workers did not want women taking their jobs

  • When labor unions formed, they excluded women

  • Most of the early attempts to give women equality in the workplace failed

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  • Immigration is the movement of people from one country to another

  • When a famine hit Ireland, Irish Catholics started coming to the U.S. from 1846-1860. (More than a million people died in Ireland)

  • The second largest group that immigrated were Germans, many moved to the midwest

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Impact of Immigration

  • Now Catholics were immigrating to the U.S., especially in the cities of the Northeast.

  • Nativists or people who dislikes immigrants

  • Nativists blamed immigrants from taking the jobs of the “Real Americans”

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Population Shift

  • By 1850, The population had moved from the upper south (Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina) to the deep south (South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas

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King Cotton

  • In colonial times, the leading crop for the South were the tobacco fields in Virginia.

  • Now the new “king crop” was cotton

  • Sugarcane was also grown in Louisiana, but it took large sums of money and irrigation canals to be successful. It was called the “rich mans crop”

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King Cotton Ctd

  • The cotton gin changed everything. A worker could clean 50 pounds of cotton a day with the machine, instead of 1 pound by hand

  • Because the cotton gin processed cotton fibers so quickly, farmers wanted to grow more cotton

  • The invention led to the need for more slaves.

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King Cotton Ctd

  • With Native Americans removed from the South, there was now more room for cotton fields

  • Small farmers without the cotton gin or slaves would have trouble making a profit

  • Large Plantations needed a lot of slave labor to be successful

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Industry Fails in the South

  • By 1850, the state of Massachusetts had more industry (Factories) than the entire South

  • The South was more rural, (farms) as opposed to the North with large towns and cities (Urban)

  • Cotton was so profitable, Southerners had no desire to build factories

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Other Reasons

  • Lack of Capital (money) to invest in business

  • Most of the population of the South were poor farmers and slaves (No one to buy the goods)

  • The South did not desire factories or merchandise

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Poore People

  • Not all whites owned land. Tenant farmers rented land from rich landlords.

  • Southerners were embarrassed taking jobs that resembled jobs that enslaved people did

  • Southerners were very proud of being self-sufficient (not needing help from the North)

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  • 12% of the plantations held over half of the slaves

  • The goal of the plantation was to make huge profits

  • A large plantation might cover several thousand acres

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Life Under Slavery

  • African Americans endured appalling hardship and misery, with little hope of freedom

  • Enslaved workers reached the fields before sunup, and left after sundown

  • Enslaved women as well as men were required to do the heavy fieldwork.

  • By the age of 10, children were considered ready to do fieldwork

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Life under Slavery 2

  • Enslaved people lived off a diet consisting of cornmeal, pork fat, and molasses. They were allowed to have small gardens for vegetables to balance their diet

  • At any given time, a husband wife or child could be sold away, never to be seen again.

  • Many couples married anyway, even though law prevented it

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Life Under Slavery 3

  • If a father was sold away, an aunt, uncle or friend would take care of the kids remaining

  • Religion became a big part of their lifestyle. Christianity was adopted by many slaves because it gave them hope for a better life.

  • Under Slave Codes, it was illegal for whites to teach slaves how to read and write. They thought an educated slave was more likely to rebel

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  • There were very few examples of resistance, but Nat Turner led a rebellion

  • He taught himself to read and write, and before being captured him and his group killed 55 whites Nat turner was hanged, but his rebellion frightened southerners

  • Armed rebellions were rare, as burning down their masters buildings, or breaking tools were more common

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Escaping Slavery

  • Harriet Tubman and Fredrick Douglass were born into slavery and escaped it.

  • Slaves used the Underground Railroad, which was a network of “safe houses” which led to the North

  • The discipline was severe for slaves escaping, usually whipping

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Free African Americans

  • In big cities African Americans had their own communities such as barbers, carpenters, and small traders.

  • Southern States passed laws against free African Americans in Southern states.

  • In 1859, Arkansas ordered all free blacks out of the state.