Biotechnology and recombinant dna
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Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA. Biotechnology. The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product Foods Vaccines Antibiotics Vitamins Biodegradation Selective breeding. Genetic Engineering. Manipulating an organism’s genome to

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  • The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product

    • Foods

    • Vaccines

    • Antibiotics

    • Vitamins

    • Biodegradation

  • Selective breeding

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Genetic Engineering

  • Manipulating an organism’s genome to

    • alter microbes, plants, and animals for our benefit

    • correct genetic defects in humans

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Other Uses of Genetic Technology

  • Genetic technologies also used to identify individuals - UA part of Shoah Project to ID Holocaust victims (Wildcat, October 4, 2006)

  • UA project to trace ancestry

  • Diagnosis and epidemiology of disease

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Useful Properties of DNA

  • DNA sequences specify gene locations and protein amino acid sequence

  • Restriction endonucleases cut at specific nucleotides; size of pieces gives us information about DNA sequence

  • Nucleotides hydrogen bond with complementary nucleotides

  • DNA hybridization allows recognition of specific genes

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A probe is a piece of complementary DNA of known sequence, labeled with radioactivity so it can be detected

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DNA Fingerprinting: Epidemiology

  • Comparison of DNA from

    • patients

    • food

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Useful Properties of DNA

  • The complementary strands of DNA can be separated and re-associated by heating and cooling

  • One strand of DNA specifies the sequence of the other strand

    • mRNA specifies the sequence of the gene (DNA)

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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplifies DNA

  • Primers specify what DNA is copied

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PCR Amplifies DNA

  • Diagnosis

  • Epidemiology

  • Genetic engineering

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Recombinant DNA

  • Combining DNA from two different organisms

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Useful Properties of DNA

  • Restriction endonucleases can cut DNA at specific sites, leaving sticky ends for insertion of new DNA

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Selection of Altered Cells

  • Antibiotic resistance gene used to identify recombinant cells

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Genetically Modified Organisms

  • Herbicide-resistant plants

  • Bt cotton/corn (toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis that kills insects)

  • Flavr-Savr tomatoes

  • Golden rice (beta-carotene)

  • Plant-based vaccines

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Transgenic Animals

  • “Knock-out” and transgenic mice: used to study immune system and genetic diseases

  • Pigs: blood clotting Factor VIII, organs for transplantation

  • Others: Human IL-2 (cancer), albumin (blood volume), growth hormone, tPA (dissolves clots)

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Genetically Engineering Humans

  • Bone marrow supplies stem cells

  • Successful replacement of gene for enzyme needed for lymphocyte development

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Difficulties in Genetically Engineering Humans

  • Inserting gene in correct cells

  • Inserting gene so it is expressed correctly

    • Orientation

    • Regulation

  • Controlling virus vector

  • Ethical issues

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Other Issues

  • How will genetically engineered organisms affect environment?

  • Spread of genes to other organisms?

  • Who will decide?