AMST 3100 The 1960s Vietnam Chronology. Powerpoint 8 Read Chafe Chapter 9, FDR’s Atlantic Charter , Ho Chi Minh’s Declaration of Independence , and Ho’s Letter to President Truman requesting that he honor the Atlantic Charter.
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AMST 3100 The 1960sVietnam Chronology
Read Chafe Chapter 9, FDR’s Atlantic Charter, Ho Chi Minh’s Declaration of Independence, and Ho’s Letter to President Truman requesting that he honor the Atlantic Charter.
Post-1954 region after division into two regions, North Vietnam and South Vietnam, with a demilitarized zone (DMZ) in the middle. The Vietnamese nationalists never accepted this division as permanent, despite the American intention to make it so.
Vietnam War Web Resource Page
Please click this link for the PBS web-companion to its Vietnam: A Television History program. Begin with the timeline, followed by Who’s Who, etc.Please click this link to examine some of the key people and issues involved in the Vietnam War.Please click this link for a comprehensive listing of documents related to the Vietnam War.Please click this link to examine FDR’s 1941 Atlantic Charter declaring U.S. support for national sovereignty across the globe. Click this link to examine Ho Chi Minh’s Declaration of Independence (1945), and click this link to examine Ho’s letter to President Truman asking the U.S. to honor its Atlantic Charter principles (1946).Please click this link to examine the Vietnam War from a conservative-ideology perspective in order to get a fuller view of the conflict. My view leans toward the progressive rather than the conservative perspective, but I am open to all perspectives and would like you to decide for yourself how you view this experience after reviewing as much information as possible.Please click this link to briefly examine some of the lessons learned from the Vietnam experience from different perspectives. These discussions occurred in 1985.Please click this link to examine the relevant battles.
The French Indochina War pitted the French against the Vietnamese in France’s effort to re-install colonialism in Vietnam. The Americans provided money and supplies to the French, including the American plane you see in the background of this photo.
The caption beneath this photo says “Supplies for the beleaguered French garrison in Dien Bien Phu are parachuted in. The Vietnamese occupied the high ground.”
President Eisenhower, seen here with John Foster Dulles next to him, chose Ngo Diem to be his “puppet” leader in South Vietnam. The U.S. fabricated what appeared to be a legitimate election to give him credibility to outside observers. Diem was never popular among the South Vietnamese.
A Buddhist monk commits public suicide in 1963 to draw world attention to the anti-Buddhist policies of Ngo Diem, the American-supported dictator of South Vietnam. Diem did not consider himself a puppet of the U.S., despite being propped up by the U.S.. He heeded some, but not all, of the advice given to him by the Americans and was therefore frustrating.
The domino theory suggested that if Vietnam fell, then all of Southeast Asia would also fall to the communists, and this would threaten the entire free world.
Welcome to Vietnam. Troops arrived mostly by plane but the military wanted this image, reminiscent of WWII, as an icon. There was no enemy firing upon U.S. soldiers as they landed in this photo.
B-52 dropping 500 pound bombs and the damage caused by such bombing raids.
The Tet offensive began in late January, 1968 and involved attacks all across South Vietnam. While the U.S. eventually succeeded in pushing back the attackers militarily, this offensive revealed that the U.S. did not have as much control in the war as they had maintained. It was a political disaster for LBJ and contributed to Americans turning against a war in which they were frequently told victory was “just over the horizon.”
The Peace Moratorium March brought out 250,000 people in Washington DC and more than 2 million people overall.
This is a photo of the Kent State shooting. Angry students across college campuses protested the invasion of Cambodia, exposing tensions with the police and national guard. The Kent State shooting by the Ohio National Guard left four students dead. Several weeks later, in Mississippi, the police opened fire on students at Jackson State College, killing two. These killings led many colleges to close up for the semester to avoid a repeat of such violence.
This is a photo of unmarked CIA planes being armed to attack Laos. The U.S. had been secretly bombing Laos since 1964. In 1971, Nixon authorized the ARVN to openly attack Laos to demonstrate the success of his Vietnamization policy in producing a South Vietnamese army capable of defending itself. However, the Laos invasion was a disaster and the ARVN were routed. The defeat demonstrated the failure of Vietnamization and spurred increased communism and anger at the U.S. in Laos. By 1975 a communist government was established in Laos.
Nixon and Chou En Lai toast to friendship. Nixon’s visit to China was a bit ironic because it was hawks like himself who helped drive U.S. foreign policy to take such a hard line anti-diplomacy position against communism to begin with. Of course, there were also hawks in the Chinese and Soviet leadership. This visit was enabled by a new breed of Chinese leader, Chou En Lai, who favored increased Chinese diplomacy with the world.
Operation Homecoming, 1973. Former American POWs celebrate after their plane takes off from Vietnam to fly them home. Approximately 591 POWs were released.
Vietnamese civilians flee from a Saigon rooftop as North Vietnamese troops enter the city. Most of these people had civil service or other connections with the South Vietnamese government and feared communist reprisals.