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Alternative Animal Agriculture. Production. animals other than those traditionally raised usually in small scale and provides a product for a specialty market. Production. Some producers may supplement their traditional operation with alternative animals.

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Alternative Animal Agriculture

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Alternative Animal Agriculture


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Production

  • animals other than those traditionally raised

  • usually in small scale and provides a product for a specialty market


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Production

  • Some producers may supplement their traditional operation with alternative animals.

  • Many specialty animal producers use the enterprise as a hobby or a part time income


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Rabbit Production

  • have been raised for food for hundreds of years.

  • Romans produced rabbits as far back as 250 BC and used rabbit meat as a substantial part of their diet.


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Rabbit Production

  • the Phoenicians were great sailors who did a great deal of trading

  • They were given credit for introducing domesticated rabbits as far back as 1100 BC.


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US Rabbit Production

  • rabbits were brought into the country around 1900 and were produced in large rabbitries in California.

  • Since that early beginning, the industry has grown all across the country.


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Rabbit Production

  • produced by small, part-time growers.

  • Several large commercial operations in the US


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Rabbit Production

  • experts estimate that between 7 and 10 million rabbits are produced each year

  • Americans consume 10 - 13 million pounds of rabbit meat each year


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Rabbit Production

  • some rabbit meat consumed in the US is imported from Europe

  • France is the largest rabbit producer

  • Rabbit production is larger in Europe


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Rabbit Production

  • American Rabbit Breeders Assn (ARBA) registers and promotes all breeds of purebred rabbits grown in this country.


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Rabbit Production

  • can be raised under almost any climatic condition.

  • Facilities take up little space

  • raised indoors in cages called hutches


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Rabbit Production

  • usually heated in the winter and cooled in the summer to provide comfort for the animals

  • in milder climates, the rabbit house may be insulated and not need to be heated or cooled


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Rabbit Production

  • rabbits gain weight on relatively small amounts of feed

  • feed efficiency for rabbits is 2.5:1

  • for every 2.5 pounds of feed the animal eats, it gains one pound


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Rabbit Production

  • rabbits can also be fed lower quality feed than some other animals

  • demand for rabbit meat is much greater than the supply

  • many restaurants offer dishes made from rabbit


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Rabbit Production

  • USDA points out that rabbit meat is one of the most nutritious meats available

  • high in protein and low in fat and cholesterol

  • easily digestible and flavorful


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Rabbit Production

  • also used as a source of fur

  • used by scientists in research ranging from medical to product testing

  • popular as pets


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Rabbit Production

  • very prolific

  • produce young 30 days after breeding

  • raise 4 to 5 litters per year

  • litters consist of up to 8 per litter


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Rabbit Production

  • some breeds reach sexual maturity at five months of age


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Rabbit Production

  • in 1859 sailors released a pair (2) of wild European rabbits in Australia

  • In 30 years, over 20,000,000 rabbits inhabited the country


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Rabbit Production

  • rabbits became a serious pest in both Australia and New Zealand

  • they have no natural predators in these countries


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Rabbit Production

  • extreme measures have been taken to control the wild rabbit population

  • rabbits are slaughtered for meat at 8 weeks of age


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Rabbit Production

  • offer great potential for developing countries that have ample roughage to feed animals but are short on grain

  • can produce much needed protein on relatively inexpensive feed.


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Rabbit Production

  • US has potential to develop the rabbit meat market

  • consumers have trouble eating something cute and cuddly.


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Llama production

  • native to South America

  • belong to the same family as camels

  • in Chile, Peru and Bolivia were raised by the ancient Inca’s for work animals


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Llama production

  • well adapted to the cool, thin mountain air of the Andes mountains

  • can adapt to most climatic conditions


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Llama production

  • have developed into an animal industry in the US over the past 15 years

  • estimated that there are about 20,000 llamas in the US and the number is growing


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Llama production

  • llamas stand three to four feet high at the shoulders

  • weigh between 250 and 400 pounds when mature

  • can carry heavy packs for long distances


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Llama production

  • can go longer than many animals without water

  • can survive on low quality forage

  • two types of fibers in their coats - long guard hairs


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Llama production

  • short fibers that keep the animal warm

  • fiber length may range from 3-10 inches


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Llama production

  • used as pack animals in the western US for camping and hunting trips into the mountains

  • hair is made into rope


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Llama production

  • Alpaca - close relative to the llama is desired for its high quality wool which is made into rugs and blankets


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Fish Bait Production

  • earthworms are grown in beds that have been built up by loose porous materials

  • include shredded paper, shredded cardboard, garden compost, grass clippings


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Fish Bait Production

  • straw, well decayed manure

  • the pH of the bedding is closely monitored and kept slightly acidic ( pH 6.8)


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Fish Bait Production

  • beds are kept moist

  • lights are used to prevent the worms from crawling out of the beds

  • worms are sensitive to light and only come out at night


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Fish Bait Production

  • if the worms sense light they will stay in the bottom of the bed

  • worms are fed vegetable scraps and cornmeal


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Fish Bait Production

  • worms mature at about two months of age

  • packed and marketed with about 100 worms or 25 night crawlers per container


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Fish Bait Production

  • earthworms are also sold to gardeners because they help improve the soil

  • create pores in the soil to improve air and water movement


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Fish Bait Production

  • also produce castings (manure) which helps enrich the soil


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Crickets

  • raised in wooden boxes

  • floors are covered with sand in which the adults lay their eggs

  • sand is covered with fine wood shavings or other shredded material


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Crickets

  • heat lamps are used to warm the sand until the eggs hatch

  • crickets are caged and shipped to bait outlets where they are sold to fishermen


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Ostrich Production

  • ostriches are the largest existing bird in the world. Mature males may stand as tall as nine feet and weigh as much as 330lbs. The sheer size of the bird makes them valuable for meat, feathers and leather.


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Ostrich Production

  • the leather is of exceptional quality in that it is very soft, durable texture. The plumage of the male is quite attractive and is used in decorating and clothing.


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Ostrich Production

  • eggs are currently too valuable to use for any purpose other than brooding

  • the potential exists for eggs to be used as a food source.

  • One egg equals the content of 24 chicken eggs.


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Ostrich Production

  • raised to a limited extent in the U.S. Because of their low numbers, they are quite expensive to buy.

  • Allows people to make a good profit by selling young ostriches to people to raise


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Ostrich Production

  • the birds have to be kept within a high fence and require protection from cold weather.

  • Sand must be provided for the females to build their nests and lay their eggs.


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Ostrich Production

  • the adults are hardy and resistant to disease, but the chicks are susceptible and are therefore watched under close supervision.


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Ostrich Production

  • one drawback to raising ostriches is that the animal can be quite dangerous.

  • They defend themselves by flailing their legs and kicking.


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Ostrich Production

  • their toenails are sharp and can severely injure or even kill a person they attack.

  • Extreme caution has to be taken in the daily feeding and care of the birds.


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Laboratory Animal Prod.

  • Lab animals are used by scientists for conducting experiments for things such as: food, medicines, and cosmetics

  • considerable controversy over the use of animals for experimentation


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Laboratory Animal Prod.

  • No one can deny the benefits that humans have brought about through animal research

  • animals are raised under strict conditions


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Laboratory Animal Prod.

  • The animals have no genetic defects

  • harbor no disease organisms

  • tainted animals would cause a well designed experiment to have skewed results


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Honey bees

  • classified as an insect

  • because of insect like characteristics

  • also classified as an important agricultural animal


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Honey bees

  • many crops would not survive without the help from bees

  • most ag animals rely on bees to pollinate the plants that they eat


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Honey bees

  • bees assist pollination by scattering pollen from one plant to the next as they gather nectar and pollen

  • most insects work on flowers and go from one type of flower to another


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Honey bees

  • bees work a particular kind of flower for a period of time

  • this process ensures that blossoms are thoroughly pollinated


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Honey bees

  • fruit growers hire beekeepers to bring in truckloads of bees in the spring when the trees are blooming

  • bees are kept in wooden boxes called hives


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Honey bees

  • each hive is a separate colony of bees

  • beekeepers can move the hives around to different orchards for a small fee.


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Honey bees

  • in addition, the beekeeper harvests hundreds of pounds of honey each year

  • bees produce and store honey for food during the winter

  • honey is made from nectar the bees gather from flowers


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Honey bees

  • different flowers produce different nectar

  • makes different colors and flavors of honey

  • bees store honey in six sided cells joined together to create a honeycomb


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Honey bees

  • the cells are made from wax the bees produce

  • beekeepers help bees get started by placing foundations comb frames on which they build the rest of the comb


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Honey bees

  • the frames are hung into boxes called supers

  • beekeeper needs to keep enough space between the supers so the bees don’t fuse them together


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Honey bees

  • this is usually about 3/8 inch

  • enough space for two bees to work back to back


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Honey bees

  • beekeeper must pry the supers apart in order to remove them

  • bees fuse them together with propoils - a sticky substance from tree sap


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Honey bees

  • honey is harvested by extracting it from the cells without damaging them

  • empty frames are put back into the super

  • the super is put back into the hive


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Honey bees

  • bees fill the frames again

  • harvested honey is processed, packaged and sold


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Types of bees

  • within a colony there are three types of bees

  • queen

  • drones

  • workers


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Queen

  • exists to lay eggs for the hive

  • she lays thousands of eggs in her lifetime

  • other bees feed and care for her


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Queen

  • she is recognized as queen because she is larger and slender

  • kept in the lower part of the hive called the brood chamber


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Queen

  • entrances are large enough for the workers to pass through but too small for the queen to pass through

  • prevents the queen from laying eggs in the comb - honey


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Queen

  • lays eggs in larger cells called brood cells

  • eggs hatch into larvae and are fed by the worker bees

  • larvae develop into pupae and then into adults


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Drones

  • are male bees whose specific purpose is to mate with the queen

  • when the new queen emerges she goes on a maiden flight

  • during the flight she mates with all the drones


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Drones

  • drones are then removed from the hive by worker bees

  • are not allowed to winter in the hive

  • in spring, new drones will hatch


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Workers

  • sterile females

  • some collect nectar and pollen

  • some care for the queen

  • some scout the area for pollen

  • some serve as guard bees at the service entrance


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Workers

  • serve short six week lives

  • so continual reproducing is done by the queen and drones


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Queen

  • can be produced commercially in small hives called nukes


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New Queens

  • when a hive becomes crowded

  • bees produce a special large cell called a queen cell

  • larva in this cell is fed a special substance called royal jelly


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New Queens

  • when the new queen emerges the old queen will leave with a portion of the bees

  • called a swarm

  • and form a new colony


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Africanized bees

  • nicknamed the killer bee

  • aggressive nature

  • scientists from Brazil imported the killer bee to cross with regular bees


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Africanized bees

  • the idea was to produce a hybrid of honey bee that would be more productive

  • will invade a bee colony

  • kill the queen and replace her with their own queen


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Africanized bees

  • her eggs will hatch into African bees

  • adapted to tropical climates

  • do not thrive in temperate climates


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