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Academic patenting in Europe: new evidence from the KEINS database. Francesco Lissoni (Università di Brescia & CESPRI-Università Bocconi). European Universities Learning to Compete June 12, 2008, Stockholm. Sources.

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Academic patenting in Europe: new evidence from the KEINS database

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Academic patenting in europe new evidence from the keins database l.jpg

Academic patenting in Europe: new evidence from the KEINS database

Francesco Lissoni

(Università di Brescia & CESPRI-Università Bocconi)

European Universities Learning to Compete

June 12, 2008, Stockholm


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Sources

  • Lissoni F., Llerena P., McKelvey M., Sanditov B. (2008), “Academic Patenting in Europe: New Evidence from the KEINS Database”  IN THE BOOK

     Data on France, Italy and Sweden

  • Lissoni F., Nuvolari A., Tartari V., “Academic patenting in the Netherlands”, not-yet-a-draft


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Outline

  • Motivation: re-assessment of academic patenting phenomenon in Europe

  • Academic inventorship and the KEINS database: origin and methodology

  • Academic patenting in Sweden in an international perspective

  • Summing up and research questions from 3.

  • More research questions


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1. MOTIVATION: Promotion of university patenting in Europe

Repeal of HochschullehrerprivilegGermany (2001 Reform of Employee Law), Austria (2002), Denmark (2000, Act on Inventions at Public Research Institutions) Introduction ofHochschullehrerprivilegItaly (2001 Legge Finanziaria)Titolarity of IPR over public funded researchUK (1998; National Health Service circular), Germany (1998), Belgium (1999; Decree on Education)IPR awareness campaignsGermany (1998-2002), Sweden (1994; jointly to creation of “Technology Bridging Foundations”), France (1999; 2001)


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1. MOTIVATION: Is it really necessary to promote university patenting in Europe?

Recent literature suggests that it may be the case that European university produce patents, but do not own them

  • EU universities have little or no tradition of self-administration: they have traditionally left IPR management decisions in their professors’ hands, who in turn have left them in their business/govt sponsors’ hands

  • In a few countries, professor’s priviledge tradition; almost anywhere, professors are or regard themselves as civil servants, more responsive to central government’s regulations, than to their universities’

  • Absence of Bayh-Dole Act + big role (in a few countries) of large national agencies  patents in government’s hands

     Best way to count university patents in Europe is to look at the inventors, not the applicants  KEINS DATABASE!!!


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2. THE KEINS DATABASE

  • Knowledge-based Entrepreneurship, Innovation Networks and Systems in Europe, 2004-2007 (6th FP) / Workpackage 5: Analysis of Scientific Entrepreneurship through Patent & Publications Data  KEINS database on France, Italy and Sweden

  • Further extensions: Netherlands (done), Denmark and UK (ongoing)

  • More extensions and updating: pending application to ESF


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2. THE KEINS DATABASE

A closer look at patent documents

  • Patent data have long been exploited by social scientists for their rich information contents:

    • on companies: patent counts as output measure of innovation production function (Griliches, 1990)

    • on technologies: studies on the (evolution of) the techno-logical contents (classification) of patents (Engelsman & Van Raan, 1994; Van Raan, 1997)

    • on knowledge diffusion: studies on patent citations, esp. in the geographical space (Jaffe and Trajtenberg, 2002)

  • More info, previously unexploited, is now under scrutiny:

    • accessory info on the value of patents: licensing, litigation records (go to: http://www.epip.eu/)

    • INFO ON INVENTORS


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2. THE KEINS DATABASE

What are info on inventors useful for?

  • More accurate geographical information (most basic, used for long)

  • MOBILITY OF INVENTORS between applicants and across cities/regions (Trajtenberg et al., 2006)

  • RELATIONAL DATA: who knows whom  networks of inventors (Breschi and Lissoni, 2004)

  • NAMES DATABASE

     for matching purposes: academic inventors (KEINS DATABASE; Lissoni et al., 2007)

     for interview purposes (PATSTAT project)


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2. THE KEINS DATABASE

Methodology

Publicaton number,

priority date, IPC class, citations etc.

All EPO patent applications

(1978-2004)

Standardisation of company names/addresses/parent co.

Standardisation of inventors’ names /addresses + Massacrator © routine

Company-level data (~140k organizations)

Inventor-level data set


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2. THE KEINS DATABASE

INVENTOR-PROFESSOR MATCHING EXERCISE


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3. Academic patenting in Sweden in an international perspective


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Table 1. Academic inventors in France, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden

1 Professors active in 2004 (Italy, Sweden) or 2005 (France, the Netherlands) in Science, Medicine and Engineering

2 Data from checked professor-inventor matches (professors confirmed to be the inventors)

3 All records, checked and unchecked (excl. records for which professors denied being the inventors)


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Netherlands

1978-1993: 438

1994-2003: 950


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Table 2b. Academic inventors1, % distribution by discipline

1 Professors active in 2004 (Italy, Sweden) or 2005 (France, the Netherlands)

2 Info on discipline is missing for 39% of Swedish academic inventors


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Table 2b-bis. Academic inventors1, % distribution by selected sub-discipline


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Table 2a. Academic inventors as % of total professors1, by discipline


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Top ten owners of academic patents in Sweden, 1978-2003


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Top ten owners of academic patents in France, 1978-2003


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Top ten owners of academic patents in Italy, 1978-2003


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Top ten owners of academic patents in the Netherlands, 1978-2003


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Source: for France, Italy, Sweden and United States Lissoni et al. (2006).


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4. Summing up and research questions

  • Does Europe really fare worse than the US in academic patenting? YES, in absolute numbers. NO, as % of overall patenting activity, esp. Sweden

  • Does a “European model” of academic patenting exist? YES, it consists of leaving ownership largely in business companies’ hands. BUT:

     things are changing: university ownership is increasing (Della Malva, Lissoni, Llerena, 2008)

     the Netherlands seems to be a partial exception

  • Ownership patterns for academic patenting are affected both by:

    • IPR regulations

    • Institutional features of academic systems

    • Academic scientists’ incentives to invent-for-patenting, disclose to universities, and relate to industry

  • Stratification of universities with respect to patent portfolios


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5. More research questions

  • Quality of academic patenting  citation analysis

  • Identity and scientific productivity of academic inventors (Breschi, Lissoni and Montobbio, 2007)

  • Problems of inventorship attribution (Lissoni and Montobbio, 2008)


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The value of academic patents


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The value of academic patents


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