8 11 2007
Download
1 / 60

8-11-2007 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 180 Views
  • Uploaded on

8-11-2007. (Lecture 2). CS8421 Computing Systems Dr. Jose M. Garrido. Class Will Start Momentarily…. Vehicle systems Traffic control Process control Medical systems Military RT systems Manufacturing Robots systems Security control. Telecommunication systems Computer games

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '8-11-2007' - Patman


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
8 11 2007 l.jpg

8-11-2007

(Lecture 2)

CS8421 Computing SystemsDr. Jose M. Garrido

  • Class

    • Will

      • Start

      • Momentarily…


Real time applications and examples l.jpg

Vehicle systems

Traffic control

Process control

Medical systems

Military RT systems

Manufacturing Robots systems

Security control

Telecommunication systems

Computer games

Multimedia systems

Household appliance monitoring & control

Building energy control

Real-Time Applications and Examples


Properties of real time systems l.jpg
Properties of Real-Time Systems

  • Timeliness - the system must perform operations in timely manner

  • Reactiveness - the system continuously responds to (random) events

  • Concurrency - multiple simultaneous activities are carried out

  • Distribution - tasks cooperate in multiple computing sites


Rts time issues l.jpg
RTS Time Issues

  • The goal is to reduce two specific intervals:

    • service time - the interval taken to compute a response to a given input

    • latency - the interval between the time of occurrence of an input and the time at which it starts being serviced

  • The sum of these two intervals represents the response time. This must be shorter than the deadline for this type of input.


Architecture l.jpg
Architecture

  • Architecture refers to the attributes visible to the programmer

    • Instruction set

    • Number of bits used for data representation

    • I/O mechanisms

    • Addressing techniques.

  • Is there a multiply instruction?


Organization l.jpg
Organization

  • Organization refers to how features are implemented

    • Control signals

    • Interfaces

    • Memory technology.

  • Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?


Architecture organization l.jpg
Architecture & Organization

  • All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture

  • The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture

  • This gives code compatibility

    • At least backwards

  • Organization differs between different versions


Structure function l.jpg
Structure & Function

  • Structure is the way in which components relate to each other

  • Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure


Computer architecture overview l.jpg
Computer Architecture Overview

Components of a computer system:

  • CPU

  • Main Memory

  • Secondary Storage

  • I/O Devices

  • Bus

  • Operating System



Computer functions l.jpg
Computer Functions

The computer functions are:

  • Data processing

  • Data storage (memory)

  • Data movement (I/O)

  • Control







Structure top level l.jpg
Structure - Top Level

Computer

Peripherals

Central

Processing

Unit

Main

Memory

Computer

Systems

Interconnection

Input

Output

Communication

lines


Structure the cpu l.jpg
Structure - The CPU

CPU

Arithmetic

and

Logic Unit

Computer

Registers

I/O

System

Bus

CPU

Internal CPU

Interconnection

Memory

Control

Unit


Structure the control unit l.jpg
Structure - The Control Unit

Control Unit

CPU

Sequencing

Logic

ALU

Control

Unit

Internal

Bus

Control Unit

Registers and

Decoders

Registers

Control

Memory


Eniac background l.jpg
ENIAC - background

  • Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer

  • Eckert and Mauchly

  • University of Pennsylvania

  • Trajectory tables for weapons

  • Started 1943

  • Finished 1946

    • Too late for war effort

  • Used until 1955


Eniac details l.jpg
ENIAC - Details

  • Decimal (not binary)

  • 20 accumulators of 10 digits

  • Programmed manually by switches

  • 18,000 vacuum tubes

  • 30 tons

  • 15,000 square feet

  • 140 kW power consumption

  • 5,000 additions per second


Von neumann turing l.jpg
von Neumann/Turing

  • Stored Program concept

  • Main memory store programs and data

  • ALU operating on binary data and binary code

  • Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing

  • Input and output equipment operated by control unit

  • Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies

    • IAS

  • Completed 1952



Ias details l.jpg
IAS - details

  • 1000 x 40 bit words

    • Binary number

    • 2 x 20 bit instructions

  • Set of registers (storage in CPU)

    • Memory Buffer Register

    • Memory Address Register

    • Instruction Register

    • Instruction Buffer Register

    • Program Counter

    • Accumulator

    • Multiplier Quotient



Functioning of the ias computer l.jpg
Functioning of the IAS Computer

  • Repetitively performing an instruction cycle

  • An instruction cycle has two subcycles

    • Fetch cycle – the “opcode” of instruction and its address are loaded into registers IR and MAR

    • Execute cycle -- interpretation of the “opcode” and execution of the instruction


Instructions of the ias computer l.jpg
Instructions of the IAS Computer

  • The IAS computer had 21 instructions

  • These instructions are grouped as:

    • Data transfer

    • Unconditional branch

    • Conditional branch

    • Arithmetic

    • Address modify


Commercial computers l.jpg
Commercial Computers

  • 1947 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation

  • UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer)

  • US Bureau of Census 1950 calculations

  • Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation

  • Late 1950s - UNIVAC II

    • Faster

    • More memory


Slide29 l.jpg
IBM

  • Punched-card processing equipment

  • 1953 - the 701

    • IBM’s first stored program computer

    • Scientific calculations

  • 1955 - the 702

    • Business applications

  • Lead to 700/7000 series

  • The IBM 7094 introduced the data channel, a smaller specialized I/O processor


Transistors l.jpg
Transistors

  • Replaced vacuum tubes

  • Smaller

  • Cheaper

  • Less heat dissipation

  • Solid State device

  • Made from Silicon (Sand)

  • Invented 1947 at Bell Labs

  • William Shockley et al.


Transistor based computers l.jpg
Transistor Based Computers

  • Second generation machines

  • NCR & RCA produced small transistor machines

  • IBM 7000

  • DEC - 1957

    • Produced PDP-1


Microelectronics l.jpg
Microelectronics

  • Literally - “small electronics”

  • A computer is made up of gates, memory cells and interconnections

  • These can be manufactured on a semiconductor

  • e.g. silicon wafer

  • Used in the third generation of computers


Generations of electronics l.jpg
Generations of Electronics

  • Vacuum tube - 1946-1957

  • Transistor - 1958-1964

  • Small scale integration - 1965 on

    • Up to 100 devices on a chip

  • Medium scale integration - to 1971

    • 100-3,000 devices on a chip

  • Large scale integration - 1971-1977

    • 3,000 - 100,000 devices on a chip

  • Very large scale integration - 1978 to date

    • 100,000 - 100,000,000 devices on a chip

  • Ultra large scale integration

    • Over 100,000,000 devices on a chip


Moore s law l.jpg
Moore’s Law

  • Increased density of components on chip

  • Gordon Moore - cofounder of Intel

  • Number of transistors on a chip will double every year

  • Since 1970’s development has slowed a little

    • Number of transistors doubles every 18 months

  • Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged

  • Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance

  • Smaller size gives increased flexibility

  • Reduced power and cooling requirements

  • Fewer interconnections increases reliability



Ibm 360 series l.jpg
IBM 360 series

  • 1964

  • Replaced (& not compatible with) 7000 series

  • First planned “family” of computers

    • Similar or identical instruction sets

    • Similar or identical O/S

    • Increasing speed

    • Increasing number of I/O ports (i.e. more terminals)

    • Increased memory size

    • Increased cost

  • Multiplexed switch structure


Dec pdp 8 l.jpg
DEC PDP-8

  • 1964

  • First minicomputer

  • Did not need air conditioned room

  • Small enough to sit on a lab bench

  • $16,000

    • $100k+ for IBM 360

  • Embedded applications & OEM

  • BUS STRUCTURE


Dec pdp 8 bus structure l.jpg
DEC - PDP-8 Bus Structure

I/O

Module

Main Memory

I/O

Module

Console

Controller

CPU

OMNIBUS


Semiconductor memory l.jpg
Semiconductor Memory

  • 1970

  • Fairchild

  • Size of a single core

    • i.e. 1 bit of magnetic core storage

  • Holds 256 bits

  • Non-destructive read

  • Much faster than core

  • Capacity approximately doubles each year


Intel l.jpg
Intel

  • 1971 - 4004

    • First microprocessor

    • All CPU components on a single chip

    • 4 bit

  • Followed in 1972 by 8008

    • 8 bit

    • Both designed for specific applications

  • 1974 - 8080

    • Intel’s first general purpose microprocessor


Improving speed l.jpg
Improving Speed

  • Pipelining

  • On board cache

  • On board L1 & L2 cache

  • Branch prediction

  • Data flow analysis

  • Speculative execution


Performance mismatch l.jpg
Performance Mismatch

  • Processor speed increased

  • Memory capacity increased

  • Memory speed lags behind processor speed




Pentium evolution 1 l.jpg
Pentium Evolution (1)

  • 8080

    • first general purpose microprocessor

    • 8 bit data path

    • Used in first personal computer – Altair

  • 8086

    • much more powerful

    • 16 bit

    • instruction cache, prefetch few instructions

    • 8088 (8 bit external bus) used in first IBM PC

  • 80286

    • 16 Mbyte memory addressable

    • up from 1Mb

  • 80386

    • 32 bit

    • Support for multitasking


Pentium evolution 2 l.jpg
Pentium Evolution (2)

  • 80486

    • sophisticated powerful cache and instruction pipelining

    • built in maths co-processor

  • Pentium

    • Superscalar

    • Multiple instructions executed in parallel

  • Pentium Pro

    • Increased superscalar organization

    • Aggressive register renaming

    • branch prediction

    • data flow analysis

    • speculative execution


Pentium evolution 3 l.jpg
Pentium Evolution (3)

  • Pentium II

    • MMX technology

    • graphics, video & audio processing

  • Pentium III

    • Additional floating point instructions for 3D graphics

  • Pentium 4

    • Note Arabic rather than Roman numerals

    • Further floating point and multimedia enhancements

  • Itanium

    • 64 bits


Powerpc l.jpg
PowerPC

  • IBM, Motorola, Apple

  • Used in Apple Macintosh

  • RISC architecture

    • 601

    • 603

    • 604

    • 620

    • 740/750 (G3)

    • G4

    • G5


What is a program l.jpg
What is a Program?

  • A sequence of steps (instructions?)

  • For each step, an arithmetic or logical operation is carried out

  • For each operation, a different set of control signals is needed


Function of control unit l.jpg
Function of Control Unit

  • For each operation a unique operationcode is provided

    • e.g. ADD, MOVE

  • A hardware segment accepts the code and issues the control signals

  • This is the foundation for a computer!


Components l.jpg
Components

  • The Control Unit and the Arithmetic and Logic Unit constitute the Central Processing Unit

  • Data and instructions need to get into the system and results out

    • Input/output

  • Temporary storage of code and results is needed

    • Main memory



Instruction cycle l.jpg
Instruction Cycle

  • Two steps:

    • Fetch

    • Execute


Fetch cycle l.jpg
Fetch Cycle

  • Program Counter (PC) holds address of next instruction to fetch

  • Processor fetches instruction from memory location pointed to by PC

  • Increment PC

    • Unless told otherwise


Execute cycle l.jpg
Execute Cycle

  • Instruction loaded into Instruction Register (IR)

  • Processor interprets instruction and performs required actions


Categories of actions l.jpg
Categories of Actions

  • Processor-memory

    • data transfer between CPU and main memory

  • Processor I/O

    • Data transfer between CPU and I/O module

  • Processing

    • Some arithmetic or logical operation on data

  • Control

    • Alteration of sequence of operations

    • e.g. jump

  • Combination of above


Fetch decode execute interrupt cycle l.jpg
Fetch/Decode/Execute/Interrupt Cycle

  • Instruction Fetch. The number of processor/bus cycles required depends on the width of the instruction and the width of the bus

  • Decode. Determine what the instruction will actually do, in particular, what operands are required before the instruction can execute

  • Operand Fetch - multiple operands may require multiple fetches

  • Execute Instruction

  • Check for Interrupts.


Example of execution l.jpg
Example of Execution

  • The processor has a single data register, the accumulator, AC

  • Both instructions and data are 16 bits long

  • Instruction format:

    • 4 bits for the opcode, for 16 different opcodes

    • 12 bits for the address (4K)

  • Opcodes: 1=load AC, 2=store AC, 5= add to AC

  • Instruction format using Hex notation



End of lecture l.jpg
End of Lecture

End

Of

Today’s

Lecture.

8-21-07


ad