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Women Engineers And Technicians In The Field Of Clinical And Biomedical Engineering. Sally Goebel National Support Manager, Customer Triage Services Siemens Medical Solutions May 18, 2006. Prominent Women in Politics. Leader of 19 nations Mayor of 16% of US cities

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women engineers and technicians in the field of clinical and biomedical engineering

Women Engineers And Technicians In The Field Of Clinical And Biomedical Engineering

Sally Goebel

National Support Manager, Customer Triage Services

Siemens Medical Solutions

May 18, 2006

prominent women in politics
Prominent Women in Politics
  • Leader of 19 nations
  • Mayor of 16% of US cities
  • Current Secretary of State
  • Currently 14 US Senators are women
    • 31 women have served as Senators
  • Currently 67 women in the House of Representatives or 15.4%
  • Potentially a Presidential candidate in 2008
for men only not anymore
For Men Only….Not Anymore
  • CEOs of 2.2% of US companies are women
  • 25% of Doctors in the US are women
  • 17% of Lawyers in the US are women
  • 12% of Armed Forces
    • 60 women have died serving our country in Iraq
    • Military experience increases the number of well qualified female engineering candidates
slide4
But…
  • 75% of women work because they have to… not because they choose to do so!
  • I prefer to think that the women in our field are among the 25% that choose to work and make a difference.
what makes biomedical and clinical engineering an attractive field today
What Makes Biomedical And Clinical Engineering an Attractive Field Today?
  • Aging population = more medical equipment = job security
  • Advanced system design with diagnostic remote and central tools
  • Analysis to module level
  • Increased component and system reliability
what makes biomedical and clinical engineering an attractive field today6
What Makes Biomedical And Clinical Engineering an Attractive Field Today?

More user interface and education

  • Educational resources are more easily available (online)
  • More modalities which means more opportunities (PACS)
  • Gratifying and fulfilling career
the past from my perspective
The Past From My Perspective
  • 1984: Women in biomedical and clinical engineering were as scarce as …
  • 1989: Became one of the first women to direct a medical equipment maintenance program.
  • 1991: First time I hired a female biomedical tech
  • 2001: Promoted a woman to lead Oncology tech support engineers
  • 2006: Numerous females among my staff and colleagues
  • By 2010 ???
the present from my perspective
The Present from My Perspective
  • 17% of Siemens 1st level of tech support are female
  • 23% of Siemens Sr. Managers for technical support are female
  • 30% of North Carolina Biomedical Association Board of Directors are female
  • Up to 40% of applicants for tech support job openings are female
key issues impacting the increase in female engineers
Key Issues Impacting the Increase in Female Engineers
  • Women’s Right to Vote in 1920
  • Title IX of the Education Amendment in 1972
  • Military Policies regarding women
  • Media Impact
  • Nurture Factor
impact from legislation women s right to vote
Impact from Legislation – Women’s Right to Vote
  • 1788 United States of America (to stand for election)
  • 1893 New Zealand (to vote)
  • 1902 Australia
  • 1906 Finland
  • 1907 Norway (to stand for election)
  • 1913 Norway
  • 1915 Denmark, Iceland
  • 1917 Canada (to vote), Netherlands (to stand for election)
  • 1918 Austria, Canada (to vote), Estonia, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russian Federation, United Kingdom
impact from legislation women s right to vote11
Impact from Legislation – Women’s Right to Vote
  • 1919 Belarus, Belgium (to vote), Luxembourg, Netherlands (to vote), New Zealand (to stand for election), Sweden, Ukraine
  • 1920 Albania, Canada (to stand for election), Czech Republic, Iceland, Slovakia, United States of America (to vote)
  • 1921 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belgium (to stand for election), Georgia, Sweden
  • 1924 Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Saint Lucia, Tajikistan
  • 1927 Turkmenistan
  • 1928 Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 1929 Ecuador, Romania
impact from legislation women s right to vote12
Impact from Legislation – Women’s Right to Vote
  • 1930 South Africa (Whites), Turkey (to vote)
  • 1931 Chile, Portugal, Spain, Sri Lanka
  • 1932 Brazil, Maldives, Thailand, Uruguay
  • 1934 Cuba, Portugal, Turkey (to stand for election)
  • 1935 Myanmar (to vote)
  • 1937 Philippines
  • 1938 Bolivia, Uzbekistan1939El Salvador (to vote)
  • 1941 Panama
impact from legislation women s right to vote13
Impact from Legislation – Women’s Right to Vote
  • 1942 Dominican Republic
  • 1944 Bulgaria, France, Jamaica
  • 1944 Bulgaria, France, Jamaica
  • 1945 Croatia, Guyana (to stand for election), Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Senegal, Slovenia, Togo
  • 1946 Cameroon, D.P.R. of Korea, Djibouti (to vote), Guatemala, Liberia, Myanmar (to stand for election), Panama, Romania, The F.Y.R. of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yugoslavia
  • 1947 Argentina, Japan, Malta, Mexico (to vote), Pakistan, Singapore
impact from legislation women s right to vote14
Impact from Legislation – Women’s Right to Vote

1948 Belgium, Israel, Niger, Republic of Korea, Seychelles, Suriname

1949 Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Syrian Arab Republic (to vote)

1950 Barbados, Canada (to vote), Haiti, India

1951 Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Nepal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

1952 Bolivia, Côte d\'Ivoire, Greece, Lebanon

1953 Bhutan, Guyana (to vote), Mexico (to stand for election), Syrian Arab Republic

1954 Belize, Colombia, Ghana

impact from legislation women s right to vote15
Impact from Legislation – Women’s Right to Vote

1955 Cambodia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru

1956 Benin, Comoros, Egypt, Gabon, Mali, Mauritius, Somalia

1957 Malaysia, Zimbabwe (to vote)

1958 Burkina Faso, Chad, Guinea, Lao P.D.R., Nigeria (South)

1959 Madagascar, San Marino (to vote), Tunisia, United Republic of Tanzania

1960 Canada (to stand for election), Cyprus, Gambia, Tonga

1961 Bahamas, Burundi, El Salvador (to stand for election), Malawi, Mauritania, Paraguay, Rwanda, Sierra Leone

impact from legislation women s right to vote16
Impact from Legislation – Women’s Right to Vote
  • 1962 Algeria, Australia, Monaco, Uganda, Zambia
  • 1963 Afghanistan, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Morocco, Papua New Guinea (to stand for election)
  • 1964 Bahamas, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Papua New Guinea (to vote), Sudan
  • 1965 Bostwana, Lesotho
  • 1967 Democratic Republic of the Congo (to vote), Ecuador, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Yemen (D.P. R.)
  • 1968 Nauru, Swaziland
  • 1970 Andorra (to vote), Democratic Republic of the Congo (to stand for election), Yemen (Arab Republic)
impact from legislation women s right to vote17
Impact from Legislation – Women’s Right to Vote
  • 1971 Switzerland
  • 1972 Bangladesh
  • 1973 Andorra (to stand for election), Bahrain, San Marino (to stand for election)
  • 1974 Jordan, Solomon Islands
  • 1975 Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, Vanuatu1
  • 1976 Portugal
  • 1977 Guinea Bissau
  • 1978 Nigeria (North), Republic of Moldova, Zimbabwe (to stand for election)
impact from legislation women s right to vote18
Impact from Legislation – Women’s Right to Vote
  • 1979 Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Fed. States), Palau 1980 Iraq, Vanuatul
  • 1984 Liechtenstein, South Africa (Coloureds + Indians)
  • 1986 Central African Republic, Djibouti (to stand for election)
  • 1989 Namibia
  • 1990 Samoa
  • 1993 Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova
  • 1994 South Africa (Blacks)
  • 2005 Kuwait
impact from legislation title ix of the education amendment
Impact from Legislation – Title IX of the Education Amendment
  • Radically increased opportunities for females to participate in team sports
  • More scholarship opportunities for females
  • Definite improvement in teamwork mentality for females
impact from military policies
Impact from Military Policies
  • Radically increased opportunities for females to participate in team sports
  • More scholarship opportunities for females
  • Definite improvement in teamwork mentality for females
impact of us military policies
Impact of US Military Policies
  • 1947
  • Congress passes the Army-Navy Nurse Act which:
    • Establishes the Army Nurse Corps and the Navy Nurse Corps as permanent staff corps of the regular Army and Navy.
    • Integrates nurses into the officer ranks of the regular Army and Navy with Lieutenant Colonel/Commander as the highest permanent ranks. Nurse Corps directors are authorized to hold the temporary rank of Colonel/Captain.
impact of us military policies22
Impact of US Military Policies
  • 1948
  • Congress passes the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act.
  • Women are eligible to serve in the regular active peacetime forces under the following conditions:
    • Women can constitute no more than 2 percent of the total force.
    • The number of women officers can total no more than 10 percent of the 2 percent.
    • Promotion of women officers is capped above paygrade 0-3 (Captain/Lieutenant).
    • Pay grade 0-5 (Lieutenant Colonel/ Commander) is the highest permanent rank women can obtain. Women serving as directors of WACs, WAVES, WAFs, and
    • Women Marines are temporarily promoted to paygrade 0-6 (Colonel/Captain).
    • Women are barred from serving aboard Navy vessels (except hospital ships and certain transports) and from duty in combat aircraft engaged in combat missions.
    • Women are denied spousal benefits for their husbands unless they depend on their wives for over 50 percent of their support. over men.
  • The Coast Guard is not included in this legislation, but a few SPARS remain in Women\'s Coast Guard Reserve.
impact of us military policies23
Impact of US Military Policies

1951

  • The Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS) is created.
  • Executive Order 10240 authorizes the services to discharge any woman who becomes pregnant or a parent by adoption, or who has a minor child/stepchild at home at least thirty days a year.

1967

  • The Women’s Armed Services Integration Act is modified by P.L. 90-130:
    • The 2-percent ceiling on women’s numbers is lifted.
    • The caps on officer promotions above pay grade 0-3 are removed and women become eligible for permanent promotion to pay grade 0-6.
    • Women become eligible for Flag/General Officer rank. Women\'s Coast Guard Reserve.

1971

    • The Air Force allows pregnant women to request a waiver of the automatic discharge
    • policy. The Air Force also changes recruiting rules to allow the enlistment of women
    • with children—the first service to do so.
impact of us military policies24
Impact of US Military Policies

1969

  • The Air Force opens ROTC to women.
    • The Joint Armed Forces Staff College admits women. Promotion of women officers is capped above pay grade 0-3 (Captain/Lieutenant).
    • Pay grade 0-5 (Lieutenant Colonel/ Commander) is the highest permanent rank women can obtain. Women serving as directors of WACs, WAVES, WAFs, and
  • Women Marines are temporarily promoted to pay grade 0-6 (Colonel/Captain).
    • Women are barred from serving aboard Navy vessels (except hospital ships and certain transports) and from duty in combat aircraft engaged in combat missions.
    • Women are denied spousal benefits for their husbands unless they depend on their wives for over 50 percent of their support. over men.
  • The Coast Guard is not included in this legislation, but a few SPARS remain in Women\'s Coast Guard Reserve.
impact of us military policies25
Impact of US Military Policies

1972

  • Frontiero v. Richardson—This Supreme Court decision strikes down the differences between men and women with respect to dependent’s benefits.
  • The Army opens ROTC to women.
  • Chief of Naval Operations Elmo Zumwalt issues a directive, Z-116, which:
    • Suspends restrictions on women succeeding to command ashore.
    • Authorizes limited entry of women into all enlisted ratings.
    • Opens assignment aboard the hospital ship USS Sanctuary to all women.
    • Allows women officers into additional occupational fields such as intelligence, cryptology,
    • public affairs, and maintenance.
    • Opens the Chaplain Corps and Civil Engineering Corps to women.
    • Opens Navy ROTC to women.
    • Allows women to be selected for war college.

1973

  • The draft ends with the expiration of the Selective Service Act. As the era of the All-Volunteer Force starts, recruiting goals for women begin to increase.
  • Navy women become eligible for aviation duty in noncombat aircraft.
  • The Coast Guard begins accepting women for regular active duty.

1974

  • Army women become eligible for aviation duty in noncombat aircraft.
impact of us military policies26
Impact of US Military Policies

2002

  • The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) allows the DACOWITS charter to expire and issues a new charter which reduces by over half the number of committee members and modifies the committee’s mission. Among the changes is the addition of family matters to the list of issues within the purview of DACOWITS.
    • The Army decides to remove all eight women soldiers from its first Reconnaissance, Surveillance,
    • Target Acquisition (RSTA) squadron. RSTA squadrons are expected to be part of the Army’s planned fast-deploying combat brigades.
    • A woman Marine is the first American military woman killed in theater in Afghanistan. She was one of several Marines killed in the crash of a military aircraft.
    • The FY 2003 Defense Authorizations Act forbids military commanders from requiring (or strongly suggesting) the wearing of the abaya by military women serving in Saudi Arabia.
    • The Act also requires the Department of Defense to submit an annual report on the status of women in the services.

2003

  • Schwartz v. Rascon filed in U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts challenges the males-only provision for Selective Service registration.
  • Over 25,400 women deploy in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. One woman iskilled and two are taken as prisoners of war.
media impact
Media Impact
  • Editor of 24 X 7
  • President of ACCE
the nurture factor
The Nurture Factor

Characteristics of a successful biomedical or clinical engineer:

  • Sensitivity and empathy with the ultimate customer
  • Ability to see the Ceiling View
  • Great Sense of Urgency
  • Good technical and mechanical analysis skills
the pace
The Pace
  • The times, they are a changing, but not fast enough
  • In 1979, My first electronics class contained 30% women which did not prove to be typical
  • The industry overall is at best 10%
  • Keep the faith
climate control
Climate Control
  • The workplace is much more diverse today
  • Sexual harassment laws have truly changed the environment for technicians and engineers.
  • Women are exposed to technology at an earlier age
  • Old assumptions, such as “girls are not good at math”, have all but disappeared.
looking forward34
Looking Forward
  • Girl’s scholastic performance

has steadily improved in the last few decades, particularly in math and science.

  • There is an increased interest in math and engineering among schoolgirls
  • More female engineers graduate each year
  • The aging population will create more demand and opportunities in the field
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