School leadership and effective schools: some recent research findings. . Professor Petros Pashiardis , Educational Leadership CCEAM President Open University of Cypru s Nicosia, Cyprus FAX +357-22 411601 e.mail: p.pashiardis @ ouc .ac.cy Keynote Presented at the
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some recent research findings
The recent transitions of world economy from agriculture and manufacturing to information and computers, and now to bio-genetics as shown in the next table
The intensification of global competition and the consequent redefinition of excellence, effectiveness and quality
In general, which comes as a result of the previous tableEFFECTIVE principals in a study I conducted in Cyprus:
(3) Have the deep conviction that they can influence much more from a position of leadership, such as the principalship, than any other position in the school system.
(5) They are risk-takers and they are not afraid to "express their inner thoughts freely". They are definitely not a "yes" person. Sometimes, they will take risks even against the will of the Ministry of Education (considered a heresy in Cyprus). They are strong-willed, decisive and ready to act.
(7) They are good time-managers. "The best friend and the best foe is time". They are well-organized and their daily school life is evenly divided among the many tasks they need to perform.
(8) They are schools to be compared with other schools both in Cyprus and abroad. This is so because they are honest and truth lovers. They tell the truth to parents about their kids, and they tell the truth to teachers about their own performance without trying to "beautify" the situation as most teachers try to do in Cyprus. They are forthcoming and bold when expressing their views.
(9) They find innovative ways to reward both teachers and students because they strongly believe that rewards (especially not material ones) are an important motivator for people to act.
(12) They mostly believe in trait-leadership theory even though they acknowledge that they "should learn some management theories in order to improve their management style". The belief though is that "if you don't have it (i.e., leadership ability) you will not get it".
It is interesting that what we (wrongly) perceive as "female" qualities (such as caring, sharing, showing emotions and feelings), were evident in all forty-nine effective principals (both male and female). Therefore, I am tempted to say that MBFE is their philosophy:
Management By Feelings and Emotions
Generally speaking, in the study of School Leadership and its Effects, two main issues have arisen:
2. Under what conditions does school leadership affect student achievement, and to what extent?
Reasons for the contradictory findings: its Effects, two main issues have arisen:
1.Theoretical & conceptual problems:
2. Methodological problems:
Three main models its Effects, two main issues have arisen: of principals’ leadership effects on student achievement exist:
1. The model of direct effects
2. The model of indirect effects
3. The model of reciprocal effects
Student Final Knowledge
2.Lack of any influences of teachers’ leadership style on student achievement.
3.Effects of both school and classroom cultures on student achievement.
4.Influences of principals’ leadership on culture at the classroom level but not at the school level.
5.Validation of theoretical models of both school organizational culture and classroom learning culture.
1. Reduction of the degree of centralization of educational systems – Self-management and more autonomy and accountability in schools.
2. Systems of principals’ promotion that offer opportunities and motives to those young teachers who can work as effective principals
3. Reallocation of principals´ time.
4. Appropriate programs for principals’ preparation and further professional development.
1. Strong presence of principals in every aspect of school life.
2. Emphasis on a strong, positive culture (commitment, innovation & shared decision-making process).
3. Promotion of teachers’ professional development and in-service (either at the school level or at the local level).
4. A consideration of two wider implications of the recent incidence of policy-copying attendant on heightened global awareness of different cultural practices:
a) whether traditional patterns of Anglo-American hegemonic diffusion in educational leadership will perpetuate themselves and,
b) whether models of leader formation are more likely to diverge in the interests of cultural particularism or to converge around a norm of cultural universalism.
Increasingly school leaders
have been identified by governments as
in the attainment of high performing school sectors
What do these national competencies (Department of Education, Employment and Training, 2000).
preferences have to say about
the evolutionary likelihood
of universalism or particularism?
The cooperative relationships between Universities and Schools should and will be strengthened
The expectations for more efficiency and effectiveness of the school system will continue to increase almost everywhere in the world. Sooner or later society will expect more accountability on behalf of the education systems it helps pay for and teachers and education systems should understand and expect thisSome Concluding Thoughts
Leadership is a philosophical process and leaders that influence quality at their schools are philosophers!
In Cyprus, and probably elsewhere, when it comes to preparing leaders for leadership and leadership for change we are going through the period of “benevolent neglect”