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Theoretical/Philosophical Foundation in ELT. Muchlas Yusak Widyaiswara DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL DIREKTORAT JENDERAL PENINGKATAN MUTU PENDIDIK DAN TENAGA KEPENDIDIKAN LEMBANGA PENJAMIN MUTU PENDIDIKAN (LPMP) JAWA TENGAH 2006. Levels of Literacy. Wells, 1987. Epistemic. Informational.

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Theoretical/Philosophical Foundation in ELT

Muchlas Yusak

Widyaiswara

DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL

DIREKTORAT JENDERAL PENINGKATAN MUTU PENDIDIK DAN TENAGA KEPENDIDIKAN

LEMBANGA PENJAMIN MUTU PENDIDIKAN (LPMP) JAWA TENGAH

2006


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Levels of Literacy

Wells, 1987

Epistemic

Informational

Functional

Performative


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PERFORMATIVE

  • the code as code – an important part of becoming literate

  • simply a matter of acquiring:

    • those skills that allow a written message to be decoded into speech in order to ascertain its meaning

    • those skills that allow a spoken message to be encoded in writing, according to the conventions of letter formation, spelling and punctuation.

  • ‘breaking the code’ of knowing the relationship between spoken and written symbols.


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FUNCTIONAL

  • emphasises the uses that are made of literacy in interpersonal communication

  • is able to as a member of that particular society to cope with the demands of everyday life that involve written language.

    • reading a popular newspaper,

    • writing a job application,

    • following procedural instructions

  • the dividing line between literacy and illiteracy


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INFORMATIONAL

  • focuses on the role that literacy plays in the communication of knowledge, particularly discipline-based knowledge

  • the curricular emphasis on reading and writing – but particularly reading

  • the student’s use for accessing the accumulated knowledge in order to construct a meaning which reciprocate the intention of the writer

  • ‘being a text participant’ (able to ‘comprehend’ the text)


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EPISTEMIC

  • to have available ways of acting upon and transforming knowledge and experience that are in general unavailable to those who have never learned to read and write

  • the aesthetic aspect of language as art (literature, poetry)


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Derewianka, 1995

CULTURE

GENRE

(PURPOSE)

REGISTER

SITUATION

Who is involved?

(Tenor)

The subject matter

The channel

(Mode)

(Field)

TEXT


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The Context of Culture

  • The attitudes, values and shared experiences of any group of people living in the one culture.

  • Culturally evolved expectations of ways of behaving

  • Culturally evolved ways of getting things done or of achieving common goals (genre)

    • buying and selling goods

    • directing someone to the bank

    • recounting recent events

    • arguing a point of view


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Register

  • Field:the social activity taking place.

    (football, cooking, stamp collecting, studying history, economics)

  • Tenor:the relationship between participants.

    • Power(equal or unequal status)

    • Contact(how often you have contact with the person to whom you are speaking or writing)

    • Affect(attitudes and feelings towards topics and participants)


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Register … continued

  • Mode:the channel of linguistic communication.

    • Distance in space and distance in time between speaker/listener and reader/writer

    • Distance between text and the events being referred to, such as listening to cooking demonstration on TV; relating the TV demonstration to a friend; reading a recipe.


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Communicative Competence

Socio-cultural Competence

Discourse Competence

Actional Competence

Linguistic Competence

Strategic Competence

Celce-Murcia et al, 1995


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DISCOURSE COMPETENCE

  • It concerns the selection, sequencing, and arrangement of words, structures and utterances to achieve a unified spoken or written text.

  • The intersection of the lexicogrammar with the signals of the communicative intent and sociocultural context to express attitudes and messages, and to create texts.

  • Sub-areas that contribute to discourse competence: cohesion, deixis, coherence, genre structure,and theconversational structureinherent to the turn-taking system in conversation.


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Components of Discourse Competence

  • COHESION

    • Reference (anaphora, cataphora)

    • Substitution/ellipsis

    • Conjunction

    • Lexical chains (related to content schemata), parallel structure

  • DEIXIS

    • Personal (pronouns)

    • Spatial (here, there; this, that)

    • Temporal (now, then; before, after)

    • Textual (the following chart; the example above)


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Components of Discourse Competence … cont.

  • COHERENCE

    • Organized expression and interpretation of content and purpose (content schemata)

    • Thematization and staging (theme-rheme development)

    • Management of old and new information

    • Propositional structures and their organizational sequences

      • temporal, spatial, cause-effect, condition-result, etc.

    • Temporal continuity/shift (sequence of tenses)

  • GENRE/GENERIC STRUCTURE (formal schemata)

    • Narrative, interview, service encounter, research report, sermon, etc.


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Components of Discourse Competence … cont.

  • CONVERSTAIONAL STRUCTURE (inherent to the turn-taking system in conversation but may extend to a variety of oral genres)

    • How to perform openings & reopenings

    • Topic establishment & change

    • How to hold & relinquish the floor

    • How to interrupt

    • How to collaborate & backchannel

    • How to do preclosings & closings

    • Adjacency pairs (related to actional competence)

      • First and second pair parts (knowing preferred and dispreferred responses)


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LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE

  • comprises the basic elements of communication:

    • sentence patterns and types,

    • the constituent structure,

    • the morphological inflection, and

    • the lexical resources, as well as

    • the phonological and orthographic systems needed to realize communication as speech or writing.


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Components of Linguistic Competence

  • SYNTAX

    • Constituent/phrase structure

    • Word order (cannonical and marked)

    • Sentence types

      • statements, negatives, questions, imperatives, exclamations

    • Special constructions

      • existentials (there + BE …)

      • clefts (It’s X that/who …; What + sub. + verb + BE)

      • question tags, etc.

    • Modifiers/intensifiers

      • quantifiers, comparing and equating

    • Coordination (and, or, etc.) and correlation (both X and Y; either X or Y)

    • Subordinations (e.g. adverbial clauses, conditionals)

    • Embedding

      • noun clauses, relative clauses (e.g. restrictive and non-restrictive)

      • reported speech


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Components of Linguistic Competence … cont.

  • MORPHOLOGY

    • Parts of speech

    • Inflections (e.g. agreement and concord)

    • Derivational processes (productive ones)

      • compounding, affixation, conversion/incorporation

  • LEXICON

    • Words

      • content words (Ns, Vs, ADJs)

      • function words (pronouns, prepositions, verbal auxiliaries, etc)

    • Routines

      • word-like fixed phrases (e.g. of course, all of a sudden)

      • formulaic and semi-formulaic chunks (e.g. how do you do?)

    • Collocations

      • V-Obj (e.g. spend money), Adv.Adj (e.g. mutually intelligible), Adj.N (e.g. tall building)

    • Idioms (e.g. kick the bucket)


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Components of Linguistic Competence … cont.

  • PHONOLOGY (for pronunciation)

    • Segmentals

      • vowels, consonants, syllable types, sandhi variation (changes and reductions between adjacent sounds in the stream of speech)

    • Suprasegmentals

      • prominence, stress, intonation, rhythm

  • ORTHOGRAPHY (for spelling)

    • Letters (if writing system is alphabetic)

    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences

    • Rules of spelling

    • Conventions for mechanics and punctuation


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ACTIONAL COMPETENCE

competence in conveying and understanding communicative intent, that is, matching actional intent with linguistic form based on the knowledge of an inventory of verbal schemata that carry illocutionary force (speech acts and speech act sets).


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Components of Actional Competence(for oral language)

KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS

  • INTERPERSONAL EXCHANGE

    • Greeting and leave taking

    • Making introductions, identifying oneself

    • Extending, accepting and declining invitations and offers

    • Making and breaking agreements

    • Complementing and congratulating

    • Reacting to interlocutor’s speech

      • Showing attention, interest, surprise, sympathy, happiness, disbelief, disappointment

  • INFORMATION

    • Asking for and giving information

    • Reporting (describing and narrating)

    • Remembering

    • Explaining and discussing


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Components of Actional Competence … cont.

  • OPINIONS

    • Expressing and finding out about opinions and attitudes

    • Agreeing and disagreeing

    • Approving and disapproving

    • Showing satisfaction and dissatisfaction

  • FEELINGS

    • Expressing and finding out about feelings

      • love, happiness, sadness, pleasure, anxiety, anger, embarrassment, pain, relief, fear

      • annoyance, surprise, etc.

  • SUASION

    • Suggesting, requesting and instructing

    • Giving orders, advising and warning

    • Persuading, encouraging and discouraging

    • Asking for, granting and withholding permission


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Components of Actional Competence … cont.

  • PROBLEMS

    • Complaining and criticizing

    • Blaming and accusing

    • Admitting and denying

    • Regretting

    • Apologizing and forgiving

  • FUTURE SCENARIOS

    • Expressing and finding out about wishes, hopes, and desires

    • Expressing and eliciting plans, goals, and intentions

    • Promising

    • Predicting and speculating

    • Discussing possibilities and capabilities of doing something

      KNOWLEDGE OF SPEECH ACT SETS

      (Note: for written language – rhetorical competence)


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SOCIOCULTURAL COMPETENCE

  • the speaker’s knowledge of how to express messages appropriately within the overall social & cultural context of communication, in accordance with the pragmatic factors related to variation in language use.


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Components of Sociocultural Competence

  • SOCIAL CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

    • Participant variables

      • age, gender, office and status, social distance, relations (power and affective)

    • Situational variables

      • time, place, social situation

  • STYLISTIC APPROPRIATENESS FACTORS

    • Politeness conventions and strategies

    • Stylistic variation

      • degrees of formality

      • field-specific registers


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Components of Sociocultural Competence … cont.

  • CULTURAL FACTORS

    • Sociocultural background knowledge of the target language community

      • Living conditions (way of living, living standards); social and institutional structure; social conventions and rituals; major values, beliefs, and norms; taboo topics; historical background; cultural aspects including literature and arts

    • Awareness of major dialect or regional differences

    • Cross-cultural awareness

      • differences; similarities; strategies for cross-cultural communication


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Components of Sociocultural Competence … cont.

  • NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIVE FACTORS

    • Kinesic factors (body language)

      • discourse controlling behaviors (non-verbal turn-taking signals)

      • backchannel behaviors

      • Affective markers (facial expressions), gestures, eye contact

    • Proxemic factors (use of space)

    • Haptic factors (touching)

    • Paralinguistic factors

      • acoustical sounds, nonvocal noises

    • Silence


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STRATEGIC COMPETENCE

  • It is knowledge of communication strategies and how to use them.

  • Communication strategies are:

    • are verbal plans used by speakers to overcome problems in the planning and execution stages of reaching a communicative goal; e.g. avoiding trouble spots or compensating for not knowing a vocabulary item. (Psycholinguistic perspective)

    • involve appeals for help as well as other cooperative problem-solving behaviors which occur after some problem has surfaced during the course of communication, that is, various types of negotiation of meaning and repair mechanisms. (Interactional perspective)

    • are means of keeping the communication channel open in the face of communication difficulties, and playing for time to think and to make (alternative) speech plans. (communication continuity/maintenance perspective)


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Components of Strategic Competence

  • AVOIDANCE or REDUCTION STRATEGIES

    • Message replacement

    • Topic avoidance

    • Message abandonment

  • ACHIEVEMENT or COMPENSATORY STRATEGIES

    • Circumlocution (e.g., the thing you open bottles with for corkscrew)

    • Approximation (e.g., fish for carp)

    • All-purpose words (e.g., thingy, thingamajic)

    • Non-linguistic means (mime, pointing, gestures, drawing pictures)

    • Restructuring (e.g., The bus was very … there were a lot of people on it)

    • Word-coinage (e.g., vegetarianist)

    • Literal translation from L1

    • Foreignizing (e.g., L1 word with L2 pronunciation)

    • Code switching to L1 or L3

    • Retrieval (e.g. bro … bron … bronze)


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Components of Strategic Competence … cont.

  • STALLING or TIME GAINING STRATEGIES

    • Fillers, hesitation devices and gambits(e.g., well, actually …, where was I …?)

    • Self and other-repetition

  • SELF-MONITORING STRATEGIES

    • Self-initiated repair(e.g., I mean …)

    • Self-rephrasing (over-elaboration) (e.g., This is for students … pupils … when you’re at school …)

  • INTERACTIONAL STRATEGIES

    • Appeals for help

      • direct (e.g., What do you call … ?)

      • indirect (e.g., I don’t know the word in English … or puzzled expressions)

    • Meaning negotiation strategies

      Indicators of non/mis-understanding

      • requests

        • repetition requests (e.g., Pardon? or Could you say that again please?)

        • clarification requests (e.g., What do you mean by …?)

        • confirmation requests (e.g., Did you say …?)


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Components of Strategic Competence … cont.

  • Expressions of non-understanding

    • Verbal (e.g., Sorry, I’m not sure I understand …)

    • Non-verbal (e.g., raised eyebrows, blank look)

  • Interpretative summary(e.g., You mean …?/So what you’re saying is …?)

  • Responses

    • repetition, rephrasing, expansion, reduction, confirmation, rejection, repair

  • Comprehension checks

    • whether the interlocutor can follow you (e.g., Am I making sense?)

    • whether what you said was correct or grammatical (e.g., Can I/you say that?)

    • whether the interlocutor is listening (e.g., on the phone: Are you still there?)

    • whether the interlocutor can hear you


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    Spoken and Written Language

    Spoken and Written Continuum

    Most spoken

    Most written

    Language accompanying action

    Language as reflection

    Spoken language

    Written language


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    Most Spoken

    • The term ‘most spoken’ refers to language interactions where language most closely accompanies action, and where there is the least physical distance between participants.

    • Examples of ‘most spoken’ texts include the language that accompanies tennis matches, basketball games, shared games, construction of buildings, etc.


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    Most Written

    • The term ‘most written’ refers to language texts where distance from action is greatest and where distance between participants is maximal.

    • Examples of ‘most written’ texts include abstract reflections on causes and effects of distant events, such as history or economics, theoretical arguments and where an author writes for an unknown future audience.


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