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A Design Tool for Meeting the 2030 Challenge: Measuring CO2, Passive Performance, and Site Use Intensity. Murray Milne UCLA Department of Architecture and Urban Design [email protected] What is the 2030 Challenge .

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A Design Tool for Meeting the 2030 Challenge:

Measuring CO2,

Passive Performance,

and Site Use Intensity

Murray Milne

UCLA Department of Architecture and Urban Design

[email protected]


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What is the 2030 Challenge

Buildings currently are responsible for 48% of all energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

Ed Mazria, the AIA, the USGBC, ASHRAE, IES, DOE and others established the goal of making buildings Carbon Neutral by 2030.

They also established the goal that by 2010 all buildings should reduce their energy consumption by 50%.

To do this Mazria says all design tools should include a “performance feedback box” to show how close each design change gets toward that goal.


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HEED (Home Energy Efficient Design)

Already Displays this Information

HEED calculates all the information needed for the 2010 goal.

HEED works for all kinds of homes or apartments or condos.

HEED works in over 1000 climates.

HEED does a fast, powerful hourly heat balance simulation.

HEED lets you design and compare up to 9 schemes at once

… and HEED is free


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HEED tries to have the most User-Friendly Graphic User Interface

  • You can draw in your own unique home,

  • You can click and drag windows to their correct locations

  • There is always a coherent building model which eliminates errors of omission/duplication

  • All results are presented graphically in plots and charts for easy comprehension

  • You can use HEED without special training


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Start by giving HEED these four Interface Facts

Building Type:

Square Footage:

Number of Stories:

Zipcode or Location:

then click Next


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From this, HEED Creates Two Buildings: Interface

Scheme 1 just Meets the California Energy Code

Scheme 2 is about 30% More Energy Efficient


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How HEED Calculates Interface

  • It does an Hourly Heat Balance Calculation for all 8760 hours per year, similar to EnergyPlus

  • It runs a whole-building analysis, integrating loads and systems for a single zone building

  • It calculates hourly indoor air temperature

  • You can use EnergyPlus Weather (.epw) data for any of a thousand different cities

  • HEED lets you input your own local utility rates and your own local pollution data…



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In this example Scheme 9 includes: COSTS compare+ Long building Axis running east-west+ Better window Glazing and Orientation+ Energy Star Air Conditioner and Furnace+ Super Insulation+ Awnings on S and W windows in Summer+ Operable night window insulation+ High Mass stone fireplace+ Energy Star Appliances

… and reduces total ENERGY COSTS to $800.26 per year or 50% of Scheme 1


Or you can ask for site energy use in kbtu sq ft yr l.jpg
…or you can ask for Site Energy Use in kBTU/sq.ft.yr COSTS compare

kWhr are multiplied by 3.412 to get kBTU


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… and this final design for Scheme 9 COSTS compare… reduces total SITE ENERGYto 27.51 kBTU/sq.ft.yr …or 58% of Scheme 1

Still not quite meeting the 50% per year goal


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How HEED Calculates CO2 Production COSTS compare

  • Buildings produce CO2 from two sources: on-site combustion of fuel and off-site generation of electricity in coal burning power plants or gas fired turbines

  • HEED calculates the Fuel burned on-site by Furnace, Water Heater, Ovens, and Dryers

  • HEED calculates the Electricity used for Lights, Air Conditioner, Fans, and Appliances (and sometimes Electric Heat Pumps or Furnaces, or Electric Water Heaters) converted to fuel equivalent at 3.412 BTUs per Watt.


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You can input data from your local Utility or EPA’s E-Grid Program in Pounds of Pollution for each type of Fuel


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You can input data from your local Utility or EPA’s E-Grid Program in Pounds of Pollution for each Megawatt Hour


Heed s comparison chart shows how all 9 schemes compare here for co2 l.jpg
HEED’s Comparison chart shows how all Program in Pounds of Pollution for each Megawatt Hour9 Schemes compare, here for CO2




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… this final design for Scheme 9 Pounds/sq.ft.yrreduces total CO2 PRODUCTIONto 3.65 lbs/sq.ft.yr (7300 lbs/yr)…or 61.1% of Scheme 1

Still not quite meeting the 50% per year goal



The bar chart shows how many hours year your home uses no energy l.jpg
The bar chart shows how many hours/year your home uses NO energy

Green is a measure of the number of hours per year of PASSIVE PERFORMANCE


It also shows a list of the most effective building design strategies for this climate l.jpg
It also shows a list of the Most Effective Building Design Strategies for this Climate

10 Most Effective Design Strategies for Very Cold Snowy Winters, Warm Clear Summers





Click and drag windows and doors onto each elevation watching for overlaps and omissions l.jpg
Click and Drag Windows and Doors onto each elevation, watching for Overlaps and Omissions


A dozen check lists let you define your home s construction l.jpg
A Dozen Check Lists let you watching for Overlaps and Omissionsdefine your Home’s Construction



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HEED can be downloaded at no cost from: schemes compare

www.aud.ucla.edu/heed

Our other Design Tools can be downloaded from

www.aud.ucla.edu/energy-design-tools

Contact Murray Milne at:

[email protected]

The current version of HEED is funded by the California Public Utilities Commission. It is being developed by the Energy Design Tools Group at the UCLA Department of Architecture, in association with CTG Energetics, Malcolm Lewis President.


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Validation: schemes compare

  • HEED has been validated against DOE-2 and others programs, using BESTEST (ASHRAE Standard 140)

  • HEED has been validated over four years using a pair of full-height test cells

  • HEED has been used to redesign multi-family housing units and field tests showed it predicted peak indoor temperatures to within one degree

  • Results are published and posted on our web site


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  • Scheme 1: schemes compare

  • CODE MINIMUM DESIGN

  • Square floor plan

  • Equal area of glass on each wall

  • Windows tinted if required by code

  • No window shading

  • Stud and Stucco walls

  • Raised wood floor

  • .35 air changes per hour infiltration

  • Scheme 2:

  • ENERGY EFFICIENT DESIGN

  • Rectangular floor plan facing South

  • Most glass on South, least on E &W

  • Clear glass on South and North *

  • Overhangs shading South Windows

  • High mass walls, exterior insulation *

  • Slab on grade floor, carpet or tile *

  • Whole-house Fan, up to 10 air changes

  • * Depending on Climate

BOTH SCHEMES HAVE THE SAME:

Floor area, Window area, Climate, Occupancy Schedules






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HEED accommodates energy-efficient design strategies such as: natural ventilation, daylighting, external shading, smart HVAC controls, thermal mass, passive solar heating, night flushing, economizer cycles


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