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Structural Collapse: Shoring


Structural Collapse: Shoring. FF Brian Ward Station 24 TRT/GSAR/Haz Mat Structural Collapse Technician. Terminal Objectives.

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Structural Collapse: Shoring

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Structural Collapse: Shoring

FF Brian Ward

Station 24 TRT/GSAR/Haz Mat

Structural Collapse Technician


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Terminal Objectives

  • After lecture, discussion, demonstration and practice the student, given a specific situation, shall select the appropriate shore and properly describe the shore with 100% accuracy, according to the FEMA Structural Collapse Technician Manuel.

  • After lecture, discussion, and practice the student shall describe and explain the appropriate uses of the types of shores discussed. Including weight constraints and its limitations according to the FEMA Structural Collapse Technician Manuel.


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Enabling

  • After lecture, discussion and practice the student shall identify the components of a rescue shore to 100% accuracy, to include gussets, cleats, wedges, vertical post, header plate, sole plate, diagonal post, cribbing and nails.


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Enabling Objectives

  • After lecture and discussion the student shall l identify the weight limitations for the shores listed previously.

  • After lecture and discussion the student shall explain the appropriate use of the shores listed previously.

  • The student shall describe the appropriate nail and nail patterns used for 2x4’s, 2x6’s, cleats, gussets, and braces after lecture and discussion.


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Enabling Objectives

  • After lecture, discussion, demonstration and practice the student shall identify the following shores with 100% accuracy: “T” Shore, Double “T” Shore, Window and Door Shore, Laced Post Shore, Vertical Shore, Two Post Vertical Shore, Horizontal Shore, and Crib Shoring.


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  • Rescue Shoring:

    Is the temporary support of only that part of a damaged, collapsed, or partially collapsed structure which is required for conducting search and rescue operations at reduced risk to the victim and personnel.


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Plywood Gussets

  • ¾” x 12” x 12”

  • ¾” x 6” x 12” Triangle (Means of egress)

  • Used to capture joints and contain wedges in place.

  • All plywood gets 8d nails.

  • 8 and 5 with 5 nail profile.


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Cleats

  • 2x4x18” when used on interior shoring.

    • Connects two sides (similar to gusset). 3 nails at each end.


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Wedges

  • “Marrying wedges”

  • Full contact with min. of 1” overhang on each side of 4x4.

  • 2x4x12”

  • Cut side to cut side.

  • Do not lift when pressurizing.

  • Always nail behind wedges to prevent slippage.

Sole Plate


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Diagonal Brace


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Header

gusset

vertical

wedges

cleat

sole

Components


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Dimensional Lumber

  • 2x4

    • 3 nails

  • 2x6

    • 5 nails (3 is acceptable if splitting wood is of concern.)

  • 4x4

  • 6x6 ( No test available for)

  • All dimensional lumber gets 16d nails.


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Nails and Nail Patterns

  • Nail Types

    • Duplex and Standard

      • 16 penny = 16d

      • 8 penny = 8d

      • 16d has a shear strength of 150lbs.

      • 8d has a shear strength of 75lbs.


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Nail Profile


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Nail Patterns

  • 2x4 (3 nails)

  • 2x6 (5 nails)

  • Note: 3 is acceptable if splitting of the wood is of a concern.


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Application

  • Take 5 mins. to apply the information.


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Squaring Systems

  • Pathegreom Theorem

  • 3,4,5 Method

5’

3’

4’


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Placement

  • Wood and Steel Structures 1 floor below any damage.

  • Concrete Structures at least 3 floors below any damage.


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Principles

  • Double Funnel Effect:

    • the load is funneled through the shores and redistributed on a lower floor or the ground itself.


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Interior Shores

  • “T” Spot Shore

  • Double “T” Shore

  • Window and Door Shore

  • Horizontal Shore

  • Laced Post Shore

  • Vertical Shore

  • Two Post Vertical Shore


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“T” Spot Shore

  • Temporary shore only, Initial stabilization.

  • 4,000 lbs.

  • Materials

    • 3’ Max. header and sole plate (4x4 or 6x6)

    • Wedges (2x4)

    • 2 gussets

    • 1 cleat (2x4)

    • 1 vertical post (4x4 or 6x6)


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“T” Spot Shore


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Double “T” Shore

  • Temporary shore.

  • 8,000 lbs.

  • Materials

    • 3’ header and sole plate

    • 2 or 3 gussets (over six feet)

    • 4 wedges

    • 2 cleats

    • 2 vertical post


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Double “T” Shore


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Window Shore

  • 1in. Thickness for each foot of opening.

  • Materials

    • Header, sole, and two vertical post. If over 4’ can use 2 2x6’s with ¾ plywood sandwiched in between.

    • 8 wedges

    • 4 triangle gussets

    • Bracing

      • (when not used for egress).


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Window Shore


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Door Shore

  • Same principles as window shore.


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Door Shore


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Horizontal Shore

  • Wall plates and struts should be same length.

    • 8’ max.

    • Materials

      • 2 struts

      • 2 wall plates

      • 2 diagonal braces

      • 2 shims as cleats

      • 4 wedges

      • 2 cleats

      • 4 gussets


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Horizontal Shore


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Laced Post Shore

  • 17’ height max, 5’ width max.

  • 32,000 lbs.

  • Materials for 10’ lace post.

    • 4 post

    • 2 headers, 2 soles

    • 8 braces

    • 8 K braces

    • 12 gussets

    • 8 wedges

5’


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Laced Post Shore


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Vertical Shore

  • Damaged Floor

  • Materials

    • Header and Sole plate

    • 3 vertical post

    • Midpoint brace

      • 1x6

    • 2 diagonal braces

    • 8 gussets

    • 6 wedges


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Vertical Shore


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Two Post Vertical

  • Half of a Laced post Shore

  • Not greater than 5’ O.C.

  • Materials

    • Header and Sole plate

    • 2 K bracing

    • Midpoint brace

    • 2 vertical post

    • 6 gussets

    • 4 wedges

5’


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Two Post Vertical Shore


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Cribbing

  • 4x4 or 6x6 can be used.

  • 18’’ or 24’’

  • 2 by 2 layout, each point of contact is 6k.

  • Should overlap by 4’’ on each side.

  • Limit height to 3 times the width.

  • Bottom layer should be solid.


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Cribbing


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Cribbing


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Discussion


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Conclusion

  • Main points

    • Proper shore for the job.

    • Uses of particular shores.

    • Identify shores, components, weight limitations, and uses.