Research and development issue 9
Download
1 / 15

Research and Development Issue 9 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 193 Views
  • Updated On :

Research and Development (Issue 9). Gulab Singh UN STATISTICS DIVISION Economic Statistics Branch National Accounts Section. 1. Research and Development (R&D). R&D in 1993 SNA

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Research and Development Issue 9' - Pat_Xavi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Research and development issue 9 l.jpg

Research and Development(Issue 9)

Gulab Singh

UN STATISTICS DIVISION

Economic Statistics Branch

National Accounts Section

1


Research and development r d l.jpg
Research and Development (R&D)

R&D in 1993 SNA

  • Expenditures on R&D are treated as consumption and not as capital formation even though it is acknowledged that they are inherently investment in nature (1993 SNA 6.163).

    • To classify R&D activity as investment type it would be necessary to have clear idea for

      • Delineating them from other activities,

      • To be able to identify and classify the assets produced

      • To able to value such assets in an economically meaningful way and

      • To know the rate at which they depreciate over time

    • In practice it is difficult to meet all these requirements. By convention therefore, output produced by R&D are treated as being consumed as intermediate inputs even though some of these may bring future benefits.


Research and development r d3 l.jpg
Research and Development (R&D)

R&D in 1993 SNA

  • This recommendation creates a difficulty – what to do with the outputs of R&D that generate income for their owners over a considerable period of time?

  • The SNA solution is to recognise assets called ‘patented entities’ that are non-produced and just appear via the other changes in assets account.

  • So, in effect, the SNA recognises those assets created by R&D which generate an income flow between units, while denying their connection with R&D production, and does not recognise at all those R&D assets whose services are consumed by their owners.


Research and development r d4 l.jpg
Research and Development (R&D)

R&D in 1993 SNA

  • 1993 SNA changed the 1968 SNA recommendation to record the income flows associated with patented entities from property income to the sale and use of services.

  • This recommendation embodies that patented entities were really produced assets and the payments for the services they produce should be recorded accordingly.

  • But it did leave the anomaly – in the context of the SNA - of non-produced assets producing services.


Research and development r d5 l.jpg
Research and Development (R&D)

Since 1993 SNA

  • There has been increased interest in what contributes to economic growth and why some countries have enjoyed more rapid growth than others.

  • There is a widespread belief that R&D contributes to future growth in output.

  • The knowledge gained from R&D is reflected in technological innovation, new products and better ways of doing things.


Research and development r d6 l.jpg
Research and Development (R&D)

Since 1993 SNA

  • To keep with economic reality R&D need to be recognised as asset in the SNA.

  • SNA promotes the development of R&D satellite accounts - few countries have done so.

  • Canberra II Group has considered all the obstacles identified and has come to the conclusion that they can be dealt with sufficiently well to warrant changing the SNA recommendation on the treatment of R&D expenditure.


Research and development r d7 l.jpg
Research and Development (R&D)

Issues involved:

  • Definition of R&D

  • Scope of R&D assets

    • inclusion of basic research and/or inclusion of all research in the social sciences.

    • Should R&D output made freely available be recorded as an asset?

  • Boundary issues with current expenditure and GFCF of other fixed assets. There are two types of boundary issue in measuring R&D.

    • to discriminate between expenditure on R&D activity and current expenditure, and

    • to discriminate between expenditure on R&D and other fixed assets.


Research and development r d8 l.jpg
Research and Development (R&D)

TheFrascati Manual(FM) identifies three principal components of R&D and defines them as:

  • Basic research, defined to be experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge or the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts without any particular application or use in view.

  • Applied research, defined to be original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge… directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective.

  • Experimental development, defined to be systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.


Defining r d l.jpg
Defining R&D

Frascati manual defines R&D as:

“Research and experimental Development comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including the knowledge of man, culture and society and use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications”

  • This definition should not be interpreted as including human capital formation within the SNA.


Research and development r d10 l.jpg
Research and Development (R&D)

Canberra-II Group recommendations:

  • Outputs of R&D should be recognise as assets, and the acquisition, disposal and depreciation of R&D fixed assets should be treated in the same way as other fixed assets.

  • All R&D output should be treated as an asset, irrespective of its nature or whether it is made freely available. In the latter case, the asset should be recorded on the balance sheet of the owner of the original and be regarded as providing a free service until it becomes obsolete.

  • The definition of an asset should be reviewed to ensure it covers the assets of non-market producers adequately.

  • The definition of R&D given in the FM should be adopted in the SNA.


Research and development r d11 l.jpg
Research and Development (R&D)

Canberra-II Group recommendations- contd.

  • Frascati system provides the best source of data for deriving estimates of R&D, principally gross fixed capital formation (GFCF). However, there are shortcomings in the Frascati data and the FM should be amended to better support the needs of the SNA.

  • Most R&D output is produced over several periods and the SNA recommendations for the production of other assets should apply. Most R&D production is on own account, which implies recording it as GFCF as it occurs under the current recommendations.

  • Patented entities should no longer be recognised as assets in the system


Aeg decisions r d l.jpg
AEG Decisions - R&D

  • Outputs of R&D should be recognised as assets. The R&D should be treated as capital formation and the value should be determined in terms of the economic benefits it is expected to provide in the future.

  • In principle, R&D that does not provide an economic benefit to its owner does not constitute a fixed asset and should be treated as intermediate consumption.

  • Unless the market value of the R&D is observed directly (purchased R&D), by convention, it may be valued at the sum of costs, including the cost of unsuccessful R&D.

  • F M definition of R&D may be used with the clarifying explanation that this does not imply that human capital is treated as an asset in the SNA.


Aeg decisions r d13 l.jpg
AEG Decisions - R&D

  • The FM should be amended to better support the needs of the SNA.

  • Most R&D output is produced over several periods and the SNA recommendations for the production of other assets should apply. Most R&D production is on own account, which implies recording it as GFCF as it occurs under the current recommendations.

  • Patented entities will no longer be separately identified as such in the system, but they will be subsumed into R&D assets.


Implications of aeg recommendations l.jpg
Implications of AEG Recommendations

  • Capitalization of R&D would require moving it from intermediate consumption to gross capital formation. The GDP would increase by the same amount in case of market producers.

  • Non-market producers GDP would increase to the extent of the CFC on their R&D fixed capital stock.



ad