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QUALITY OF LIFE INDICATORS. Keith Morrison Macau Inter-University Institute. STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION. The purposes, intended outcomes and contents of Quality of Life research: mainstream international examples

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quality of life indicators

QUALITY OF LIFEINDICATORS

Keith Morrison

Macau Inter-University Institute

structure of the presentation
STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION
  • The purposes, intended outcomes and contents of Quality of Life research: mainstream international examples
  • Methodologies in Quality of Life research, including issues of operationalisation; sampling, approaches and instrumentation, ethics
  • Reliability and validity in indicator systems
  • Data analysis, interpretation and making judgements
  • Reporting and dissemination
  • Follow-up and impact
purposes of quality of life research in macau
PURPOSES OF QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH IN MACAU
  • To develop a comprehensive set of indicators of the quality of life in the territory of Macau.
  • To apply those indicators to the territory of Macau, gathering, processing and reporting data.
  • To provide indices of the quality of life in Macau, both specific to the areas of focus and overall.
  • To provide a picture of the quality of life in Macau, based on the indicators and data.
  • To provide stratified data according to nominal characteristics of the population as well as to the population overall.
  • To set up a database that can be used as the basis for trend survey and longitudinal studies.
  • To identify areas for attention and intervention in Macau.
  • To make recommendations for action to the relevant parties in Macau.
  • To evaluate the impact and effects of action consequent to Quality of Life research in Macau.
weighted index of social progress
WEIGHTED INDEX OF SOCIAL PROGRESS

EDUCATION

HEALTH

WOMEN

ECONOMIC

DEMOGRAPHY

DEFENCE

ENVIRONMENT

SOCIAL CHAOS

CULTURAL

DIVERSITY

WELFARE

EFFORT

slide6

W. EASTERLY (1997) (WORLD BANK)

  • Individual rights and democracy
  • Political instability and war
  • Education
  • Health
  • Transport and communications
  • Inequality across class and gender
  • ‘Bads’: crime and the environment
slide7

OBJECTIVE FACTORS

  • Life expectancy
  • Crime rate
  • Unemployment rate
  • Gross Domestic Product
  • Poverty rate
  • School attendance
  • Perinatal mortality rate
  • Working hours per week
  • Suicide rate
slide8

SUBJECTIVE FACTORS

  • Sense of community
  • Material possessions
  • Sense of safety
  • Happiness
  • Satisfaction with ‘life as a whole’
  • Relationships with family
  • Sex life
  • Job satisfaction
  • Perception of distributional justice
  • Social class membership
  • Clubs and hobbies
slide9

WORLD BANK 2000/1

  • Poverty
  • Infant mortality rates
  • School attendance
  • Individuals’ and groups’ political

power and voice

  • Vulnerability to illness and disease
  • Economic location and dislocation
  • Personal violence
  • Susceptibility to natural disasters
slide10

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

  • Individual physical health
  • Individual psychological health
  • Level of individual independence
  • Social relationships
  • Environment
  • Spirituality/religion/personal belief
slide11

What makes somewhere a good place to live?

What needs most improving in this local area?

slide12

MORI, FOR THE AUDIT COMMISSION

Activities for teenagers

Education

Job prospects

What most needs improving locally

Health services

Race relations

Important generally

slide14

European Communities

  • Education
  • Health
  • Infrastructure
  • Energy
  • Environment
  • Public safety
slide15

United Nations Development Programme

  • Weighted index

Income

Education

Life

expectancy

Environment

Poverty

gaps

Gender

Human

rights

Military v civil

budget ratios

  • Human Development Index
quality of life in macau
Education

Employment

Energy

Environment

Health

Social welfare

Civic rights and duties

Income and wealth

Infrastructure

Security

Public safety

Recreation, culture, leisure

Housing

Governance

Sense of community

Material possessions

Sense of safety

Happiness

General satisfaction with life

Relationships with family

Job satisfaction

Sex life

Perception of distributional justice

Hobbies and club membership

Self-actualization

Freedom from want

Psychological well-being

Physical well-being

Social well-being

Material well-being

Social capital

QUALITY OF LIFE IN MACAU

OBJECTIVE

SUBJECTIVE

slide17

QUALITY OF LIFE

HEALTH

Sub-issue 1

Community

Infants

Children

Adolescents

Adults

Parents

State

Elderly

Chronically ill

Employed

Unemployed

Underemployed

Service: manual

Service:

Non-manual

Manual

Professional

Executive

some possible tensions
SOME POSSIBLE TENSIONS
  • Too many and too few data
  • Coverage and manageability
  • Holism and atomisation
  • Complexity and simplicity
  • Inclusion/participation and representation
slide19

METHODOLOGIES

  • Three main areas

Numerical

Qualitative

Mixed

methodologies

Fitness for

purpose

  • Comprehensive descriptions and measures
ethical issues
ETHICAL ISSUES
  • Informed consent and involvement
  • Treating people as subjects
  • Whose views and definitions count?
  • Are everyone’s views and voices heard?
  • Protecting vulnerabilities and harm (non-maleficence)
  • Protecting rights and freedoms
  • Protection from, or exposure to, litigation: liabilities, libels, negligence, misrepresentation, risk, harm (e.g. health), etc.
  • Confidentiality, anonymity and non-traceability
  • Public’s right to know versus the individual’s right to privacy
  • Bringing improvement and benefit (beneficence)
  • Giving scientific legitimacy to contestable matters (e.g. abortion, euthanasia)
ethical issues21
ETHICAL ISSUES
  • Use of rigorous, reliable, comprehensive and valid designs, methodologies, instrumentation, sampling, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, reporting, dissemination
  • Avoidance of misrepresentation of data/people/groups
  • Fair use of data and avoidance of misuse of data
  • The avoidance of negative ‘surveillance’
  • Consideration of the ethical implications of failure
  • Considerations of covert and overt practices
  • Who owns and controls the data? When does ownership pass from one party to another?
  • Access to, and release of data
  • Establishing and following protocols
  • Consideration given to the effects of reporting on those who are involved, or affected by the reporting.
  • Permissions, copyrights and fair attention to intellectual property
reliability and validity
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
  • The problem of proxies
  • Under-reporting and over-reporting
  • Happiness and expectations
  • The problem of perception – the ‘happiness’ or ‘feel good’ factor
slide26

THE DANGER OF THE MEAN

The mean is unfair: it makes

quality look better than it is

The mean is fair

reporting and dissemination
REPORTING AND DISSEMINATION
  • Reports
  • Conferences and symposia, before, during and after the project
  • Academic and professional journals
  • Initial, interim and final reports
  • Books
  • Newspaper and television coverage
  • Conferences, seminars and workshops
  • Establishment of a databank and web sites
  • Publication of technical papers
  • Interviews
thank you

The philosophers have only interpreted the world in

various ways; the point, however, is to change it.

THANK YOU

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