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Poverty, TANF, and Parenting – Understanding the Connection. Jill Duerr Berrick School of Social Welfare University of California at Berkeley. October, 2009. Presentation Overview. Poverty, child well-being, and parenting Poverty, welfare and maltreatment

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Poverty tanf and parenting understanding the connection

Poverty, TANF, and Parenting – Understanding the Connection

Jill Duerr BerrickSchool of Social Welfare

University of California at Berkeley

October, 2009


Presentation overview
Presentation Overview Connection

  • Poverty, child well-being, and parenting

  • Poverty, welfare and maltreatment

  • Negative & positive impacts of CalWORKs on caregiving

  • Traditional service responses to families

  • Opportunities for supporting child safety, permanency and well-being in the context of family self-sufficiency.


Are low income parents more likely to maltreat their children than non low income parents
Are Low-Income Parents More Likely to Maltreat Their Children than Non- Low-Income Parents?


What do we know about people who are affected by poverty
What do we know about people who are affected by poverty? Children than Non- Low-Income Parents?

Poverty tends to co-occur with other risks.

  • Teen parenthood

  • Single parenthood

  • Negative life events

  • Violence exposure

  • Marital distress

  • Parent psychopathology


Other factors associated with poverty
Other Factors Associated with Poverty Children than Non- Low-Income Parents?

  • Poverty-related stress

  • Daily hassles

  • Parental mental health/depression

  • Social Support

  • Substance abuse

  • Subjective experience of poverty

  • Assaults to the caregiving system


Low-income parents are more likely to use “negative” parenting strategies.

  • Limited parental responsiveness

  • Harsh / coercive parenting

  • Lax supervision

  • Less vocal with infants



What do the data tell us
What do the Data Tell Us? parenting strategies.

  • NIS-3

    • Income < $15,000 -- 22x more likely to be maltreated compared to family income >$30,000.

    • Poverty is the strongest predictor of maltreatment

    • But correlation is NOT causation


U s child poverty population
U.S. Child Poverty Population parenting strategies.

  • 72.0 million children in the U.S.

  • 11.5 million children are poor (about 16%)

Poor

children


U s child welfare population
U.S. Child Welfare Population parenting strategies.

  • Approx. 900,000 child victims of maltreatment

  • Approx 500,000 children in out-of-home care

Child welfare population


Characteristics associated with increased odds of child welfare events
Characteristics Associated with parenting strategies.Increased Odds of Child Welfare Events

  • Young children

  • Single parent family

  • Larger families

  • Born with low birth weight

  • Late or no prenatal care

  • Increased time on aid

  • Breaks in aid receipt


Characteristics associated with increased odds of child welfare events con t
Characteristics Associated with parenting strategies.Increased Odds of Child Welfare Events(con’t)

  • More hardships

  • Deeper poverty

  • Homelessness

  • Substance abuse

  • Parental stress

  • Prior child welfare

    contact


What s the relationship between welfare and child maltreatment
What’s the Relationship Between Welfare and Child Maltreatment?

  • Children in families receiving aid have an increased risk of a substantiated maltreatment referral.

  • Children in families receiving aid are almost two times as likely to be placed in care

  • More generous benefits may provide protection for children


What s the relationship between employment and child well being
What’s the Relationship Between Employment and Child Well-Being?

  • Increases in employment without income gains:

    • Little to no effect – positive or negative

  • Increases in employment with income gains:

    • Positive effects for children

    • School-achievement gains

    • May improve children’s behavior and children’s health

  • Reductions in income:

    • Negative effects for children


What explains the relationship between employment tanf calworks and family well being
What Explains The Relationship Between Employment, TANF/ CalWORKs, and Family Well-Being?

Childcare

Surveillance

Work

Sanctions& Penalties

Welfare Income

Family Caps

Employment

Income

Behavioral Requirements:*Teens live at home*No drug felonies*Paternity establishment*Immunizations

TANFServices

Effects on Parenting:

Positive

Negative

Complicated or Unknown


Aspects of calworks with the potential for negative impacts on parenting
Aspects of CalWORKs With the Potential for Negative Impacts on Parenting

  • Material hardship

    • Family Cap

    • Full family sanctions

  • Shorter time limits

  • Undue emphasis on employment


Aspects of welfare programs likely to have more positive child welfare effects
Aspects of Welfare Programs Likely to have More Positive Child Welfare Effects

  • Income

    • Higher benefits

    • Uninterrupted TANF payments during children’s stay in out-of-home care

    • Income supplements for working parents

    • Concrete services


Using tanf to promote positive parenting
Using TANF to Promote Child Welfare EffectsPositive Parenting

  • Federal block grants give states unprecedented opportunities to use TANF funds flexibly to provide services to families


Some creative uses of tanf funds
Some Creative Uses of TANF Funds Child Welfare Effects

  • Screening TANF clients for child welfare risk factors

  • Offering TANF clients support services to promote positive parenting and reduce stress and hardship

  • Reducing the emphasis on work for families with children in out-of-home care.


Where does linkages come in
Where Does Linkages Come In? Child Welfare Effects


Poverty maltreatment typical service responses

CalWORKs Child Welfare Effects

Encourage employment

Assess barriers to self-sufficiency

Access services

Child Welfare

Assess child safety

Assess family problems and needs

Access services

Poverty / MaltreatmentTypical Service Responses

Fundamental Goal:

Safety, Permanency,

and Child Well-being

Fundamental Goal:

Family Self-Sufficiency


What do these two programs have in common
What do These Two Programs Have in Common? Child Welfare Effects

Parents

Children


Child welfare staff need to understand the effects of poverty on child well-being if they are to promote well-being as an outcome.CalWORKs staff need to understand the effects of poverty on child well-being if they are to effectively help parents gain employment that will raise family income.


Poverty s effects on child well being

Infant deaths poverty on child well-being if they are to promote well-being as an outcome.

Low-birth weight

Birth complications

Poor nutrition

Chronic health conditions

Stunted growth

Environmental toxins

Poor quality education

High drop-out rates

Teen pregnancy

Criminal activity

Brain development

Poverty’s Effects on Child Well-Being


Poverty across childhood
Poverty Across Childhood poverty on child well-being if they are to promote well-being as an outcome.

Age

Duration

Depth


Linkages helps staff in CalWORKs and Child Welfare agencies work together to promote child safety and well-being in the context of family self-sufficiency.


Linkages can
Linkages can: work together to promote child safety and well-being in the context of family self-sufficiency.

  • Promote self-sufficiency

  • Provide improved services

  • Reduce conflicting requirements

  • Create safety for children

  • Facilitate permanency for children

  • Provide additional resources for families


For more information on linkages in california see http www cfpic org

For more Information on Linkages in California see: work together to promote child safety and well-being in the context of family self-sufficiency. http://www.cfpic.org/


References
References work together to promote child safety and well-being in the context of family self-sufficiency.

Courtney, M., Piliavin, I., Dworsky, A., & Zinn, A. (2001). Involvement of TANF families with child welfare services. Paper presented at Association of Public Policy Analysis and Management Research Meeting. Washington, D.C., November 2, 2001.

Ehrle, J., Scarcella, C.A., & Geen, R. (2004). Teaming up: Collaboration between welfare and child welfare agencies since welfare reform. Children and Youth Services Review, 26, 265-285.

Frame, L., & Berrick, J.D. (2003). The effects of welfare reform on families involved with public child welfare services: Results from a qualitative study. Children and Youth Services Review, 25(1-2), pp. 113-138.

Geen, R., Fender, L., Leos-Urbel, J., & Markowitz, T. (February, 2001). Welfare reform’s effect on child welfrae caseloads. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute.

Goerge, R.M., & Lee, B. (2000). Changes in child social program participation in the 1990s: Initial findings from Ilinois. Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall Center for Children, University of Chicago.

Needell, B., Cuccaro-Alamin, S., Brookhart, A., & Lee, S. (1999). Transitions from AFDC to child welfare in California. Children and Youth Services Review, 21(9-10), 815-841.Nelson, K.E., Saunders, E.J., & Landsman, M.J. (1993). Chronic child neglect in perspective. Social Work, 38 (6), 661-671.

Morris, P.A., Scott, E.K., & London, A. (in press). Effects on children as parents transition from welfare to employment. In J.D. Berrick & B. Fuller (Eds). Good parents or Good Workers? New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ovwigho, P., Leavitt, K., & Born, C. (2003). Risk factors for child abuse and neglect among former TANF families: Do later leavers experience greater risk? Children and Youth Services Review, 25 (9-10), 139-163.


References con t
References work together to promote child safety and well-being in the context of family self-sufficiency. (con’t)

  • Paxton, C., & Waldfogel, J. (1999). Welfare reform, family resources, and child maltreatment. In B. Meyer & G. Duncan (Eds.), The incentives of government programs and the wellbeing of families. Chicago: Joint Center for Poverty Research.Ryan, J.P., & Schuerman, J.R. (2004). Matching family problems with specific family preservation services: A study of service effectiveness. Children and Youth Services Review, 26 (347-372).

  • Shook, K. (1999). Does the loss of welfare income increase the risk of involvement with the child welfare service system? Children and Youth Services Review, 21 (9-10), 781-814.

  • Solomon and George

  • U.S.D.H.H.S. (2002). Trends in the well-being of America’s children and youth. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

  • U.S.D.H.H.S. (2002). Child maltreatment 2002. Washington, D.C.: Children’s BureauU.S.D.H.H.S. (1996) Results of the third national incidence study on child maltreatment in the U.S. Washington, D.C. National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.

  • Wells, K., & Guo, S. (2004). Reunification of foster children before and after welfare reform. Social Service Review

  • Wells, K., & Guo, S. (2003). Mothers’ welfare and work income and reunification with children in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 25(3), 203-224.


Acknowledgements

Thanks to the following for their collaboration on welfare – child welfare projects in the CSSR: Laura Frame, Stephanie Cuccaro-Alamin, Barbara Needell, Jodie Langs, and Lisa Varchol.

Acknowledgements


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