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The Skinny on Low Carbohydrate Diets. The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. Americans Are Gaining Too Much Weight! . Overweight is a major problem, not only in the U.S., but throughout the world The increase in weight causes an increase in many chronic diseases diabetes

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The skinny on low carbohydrate diets l.jpg

The Skinnyon Low Carbohydrate Diets

The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service


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Americans Are Gaining Too Much Weight!

  • Overweight is a major problem, not only in the U.S., but throughout the world

  • The increase in weight causes an increase in many chronic diseases

    • diabetes

    • heart disease

    • cancer

    • arthritis


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Why Is America Gaining Weight?

  • We’re eating too much

    • Large portions

    • “Empty” calories


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Why Is America Gaining Weight?

  • We sit too much

  • We get too little physical activity



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Low Carbohydrate Diets Recycled

Low-carb diets are not new - many are from the ’70s:

  • The Stillman Diet

  • Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution

  • The Scarsdale Diet

  • Airforce Diet


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The Lure of Low-Carb Fad Diets

  • Lose weight quickly

  • Less hunger

  • Unlimited amounts of meat and fat


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The Lure of Low- Carb Fad Diets

  • “Low-carb” foods are flooding the market

    • in the grocery store

    • in restaurants

Low-Carb Menu


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Low Carb Diet Claims

  • Carbohydrate is the cause of weight gain

    • too much insulin is released, causing hunger, cravings and weight gain

  • Low-carb diets cause weight loss


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What is a Low Carbohydrate Diet?

Typical low-carb diet:

  • Initially severely restricts foods with carbohydrate

    • Fruits, vegetables, milk, whole grains

  • Often allows unlimited meats and fats

Low-Carb Yogurt


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Do You Need Carbohydrate?

  • Your brain depends on carbohydrate for energy

    • A minimum of 130 grams per day

    • Low carbohydrate diets provide only 20-90 grams carbohydrate per day


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Importance of Carbohydrates

  • Whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy foods are an important part of any diet

    • Contain nutrients

      that are needed for

      good health


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Be Carbohydrate Conscious

  • Limit portions of all carbohydrates to limit calories

  • Carbohydrates that are high in sugar or fat are less healthy



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Quick Weight Loss

  • Promises of quick weight loss?

    • Weight lost during first 7-14 days is water loss


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Quick Weight Loss

Carbohydrate stored in muscle and liver

Water

Energy

Water loss, not fat loss


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Do Low Carb Diets Work?

  • You will lose weight if you follow any diet

    • Due to fewer calories

  • Low carb diets

    • Severely limit food choices

    • Don’t allow foods that people often overeat

  • Studies show low carb diets do not work better


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Are Low Carb Diets Harmful?

  • Lack important nutrients

    • found in fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and whole grains

  • High in cholesterol and saturated fat

    • May increase risk of heart disease


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Are Low Carb Diets Harmful?

May increase the risk of:

  • Bone loss

  • Kidney stones

  • Gout (painful joint disease)

  • Kidney disease

  • Dehydration and constipation


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Are Low Carb Diets Harmful?

  • Low carb diets may hinder the performance of athletes

    • May run out of energy too quickly

    • Carbohydrate needed to replenish stored carbohydrate in muscles (glycogen)

    • Low-carb diets may cause dehydration


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What About Low Carb Products?

Low carb beer

Low carb ice cream

Low carb pasta

Low carb cookies

Low carb bread

Low carb candy

Low carb chips


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How Do They Make a Food “Low Carb” ?


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½ 3-ounce bag unflavored pork rinds

2 eggs

¼ cup heavy cream

3 packets Splenda

½ tsp cinnamon

½ tsp vanilla

Low Carb French Toast

Crumble pork rinds. Beat eggs well, then mix with remaining ingredients and beat again. Add crushed pork rinds to the egg/cream mixture. Mix will thicken to a “gloppy” phase...

Serve with lots of butter and low-carb syrup.

Serves 2: 310 Calories; 25 grams fat; 1.5 grams CHO;

270 mg cholesterol


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How Are Carbs Reduced?

  • Reduce or eliminate flour

    • Use proteins from soy beans, wheat, oats, milk, eggs

    • Add fiber

  • Replace sugar

    • Sugar alcohols (maltitol) or sugar substitutes

  • Reduce the serving size


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Confusing Labeling Lingo

Net Carbs?

Impact Carbs?

Effective Carbs?

  • New terms created as marketing ploy

  • Manufacturers subtract fiber and sugar alcohols from Total Carbohydrate to get ‘‘net carbs”


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“Net Carbs” or Total Carbs

ADVANTAGE

3g *

Net Carbs

Atkins

Chocolate Mocha Crunch Bar

Net wt 2.11 oz (60 g)

Nutrition Facts

Serving size: 1 bar (60 g)

Calories: 220

Total Carbohydrate: 22 g

Dietary Fiber 10 g

Sugars 0 g

Advice: Ignore “net carbs” – look at the Nutrition Facts label


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The Bottom Line on Low-Carb Foods

  • Have not been shown to help with weight loss

  • Are not usually low in calories or fat

  • Poor taste

  • Expensive

Low-Carb

Low-Carb

Yogurt


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Atkins Diet Example

3-egg omelet

1 oz cheese

1 tsp. butter

4 slices bacon

6 oz grilled chicken

2 cups salad

¼ cup almonds

¼ cup oil & vinegar

8 ounces steak

3/4 cup broccoli

2 tsp butter


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Evaluating a Low Carb Diet

  • Low in:

    • Calcium

    • Fiber

    • Antioxidants, phytonutrients

  • High in:

    • Total fat

    • Saturated fat

    • Cholesterol


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1000 mg

Cholesterol and Fat Comparisons

Cholesterol

Percent Calories from Fat

1000 mg

60%

<30%

<300 mg

Current Recommendations

Current Recommendations

Atkins

Atkins


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Atkins Diet Example(with “low-carb” foods)

3-egg omelet

1 oz cheese

1 slice low-carb toast

1 tsp. butter

4 slices bacon

6 oz grilled chicken

2 cups salad

1 oz. low carb tortilla chips

¼ cup almonds

¼ cup oil & vinegar

2 low-carb cookies

8 ounces steak

3/4 cup broccoli

2 tsp butter

1 cup low-carb ice-cream



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Example of 1500 Calorie Low-fat Menu

BreakfastLunchDinner

½ cup orange juice 6 carrot sticks 1 medium sweet potato

1 cup skim milk 2 slices ww bread ¾ cup broccoli

¾ cup bran cereal 2 oz turkey 1 cup lettuce salad

1 apple 3 oz baked salmon

1 cup skim milk 1 whole wheat roll

2 tsp. mayonnaise 2 Tbs. olive oil & vinegar2 tsp. margarine

Evening Snack

6 oz low-fat yogurt

½ cup blueberries


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Hints for Weight Loss Success

Food and exercise habits of successful weight losers:

  • Follow a reduced calorie, low-fat diet

  • Exercise at least 30 minutes most days

  • Keep a record of what and how much is eaten

  • Eat breakfast every day

  • Check weight weekly


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