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GLOBAL SYNOPTIC SURVEY AND PROTOCOL INDIAN OCEAN By Vijayalakshmi R. Nair Consultant National Institute of Oceanography Kochi. Current surveys in Indian Ocean.

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Vijayalakshmi R. Nair Consultant

National Institute of Oceanography Kochi

Current surveys in Indian Ocean

Studies on biodiversity of phytoplankton and zooplankton

with special emphasis on island ecosystem (Andaman sea)

Assessment and evaluation of environmental parameters and primary and secondary productivity








Stratified zooplankton sampling (0-1000m) from 114 stations from Indian EEZ, 2003-2007, MR-LR, Project of DOD, NIO




Stratified zooplankton samples (0-300m) from 16 oceanic and 16 coastal stations, 2003-2007, MR-LR Project of DOD, NIO.

Recent surveys in Indian Ocean

JGOFS (India) : Central and eastern Arabian Sea

Stratified zooplankton collections from 93 locations (0-1000m), 1992-1997

Bay of Bengal process studies (Sequel of JGOFS) : Coastal (10 stations) and open sea (15 stations)

Stratified zooplankton collections from 0-1000m, 2001-2003

  • Under sampled area

  • Western side of Indonesia : Significant for Indo-Pacific community

  • Deep water collections (south of Equator) : Surfacing of meso and bathypelagic species

CMarZ related cruises in Indian Ocean

  • E5. National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is planning a cruise along a transect across the Indian Ocean. Zooplankton species to be identified and preserved for DNA barcoding (CMarZ contact : Ann Bucklin) Naqvi (Cruise Leader) informed cruise will be delayed

  • C6. The French program OISO may provide opportunities for CMarZ sampling of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean (CMarZ contact : Colomban de Vargas) Status not known

  • SW Indian Ocean

  • A12 African Coelocanth Ecology Programme off the east coast of South Africa, 2004-2005

  • A13. ‘Madex’ cruise south of Madagascar during February 2005

  • D1. Sampling during annual fisheries stock assessment, monthly environmental monitoring cruises and dedicated research training cruises during 2008 Specimens will be identified for DNA barcoding

  • (CMarZ contact : Hans Verheye for A12, A13 & D1)

  • Comments:

  • Overview of the cruises for east coast of South Africa by Hans Verheye

  • Cruise proposals for Indian Ocean, excluding off South Africa, not promising CMarZ may plan a cruise for Indian Ocean. A few experts from India can participate and identify species for DNA barcoding

Zooplankton species of Indian Ocean

Community Structure

  • Zooplankton community around Andaman waters showed dominance of copepods (59 species) followed by chaetognaths (16 species)

  • Tsunami 2004 in Bay of Bengal showed low biomass for zooplankton. Copepod community showed surfacing of mesopelagic species like Lophothrix frontalis, Haloptilus spiniceps, Pachos punctatum, Mormonilla phasma and Conaea rapax

Tropical zone Maximum diversity Indo-Pacific species

Subtropical zone Cosmopolitan species Surfacing of meso and bathypelagic species

Transitional zone Maximum faunistic contrast, overlapping of cold & warm water species

  • 31 species of chaetognaths occur in Indian Ocean

  • Tropical zone : 1. North of 10°S with maximum biodiversity

  • 2. Predominated by Indo-Pacific species

  • 3. Unique in maintaining species in respective bathymetric level

  • Subtropical zone : 1. Dominated by cosmopolitan species

  • 2. Meso and bathypelagic species penetrate to upper strata

  • Transitional zone : 1. Maximum faunistic contrast

  • 2. Species of southern cold water and warm waters overlap

Biogeographic provinces

Contributions Maximum diversity Indo-Pacific species

  • 1. Laboratory based cooperating project

  • IIOE data : Digitized details for 1,548 zooplankton collections from entire Indian Ocean including station details, biomass, total population, density for all taxa, 21 chaetognath species and 26 ostracod species

  • 2. Training course

  • Taxonomic identification of copepods, chaetognaths and ostracods, NIO, Kochi (November 2005 & April 2006)

  • Basic training for zooplankton analysis and identification of 54 taxa, NIO, Kochi (2006)

  • 3. Awareness on CMarZ activities

  • Presented a paper Census of Marine Zooplankton (CMarZ) - a Global Biodiversity Project

  • By

  • Vijayalakshmi R. Nair and Ann Bucklin

  • At

  • Symposium on National Biodiversity and Ecosystem Information Infrastructure : Challenges and Potentials – Jan 30 to Feb 2, 2006, NCL, Pune, India

Popular Scientific Article Maximum diversity Indo-Pacific species

Science Reporter (CSIR Publication) Vol.43 No.5, 9-15, May 2006

CMarZ Network Maximum diversity Indo-Pacific species

Taxonomic Experts from India

Saramma U. Panampunnayil (Mysids) : Participated in NW Atlantic cruise (April, 2006) Identified 8 bathypelagic species. 6 species given for DNA sequencing

Lalithambika Devi, C.B. (Fish larvae) : Participated in NW Atlantic cruise (April, 2006) Identified 43 species. 15 species given for DNA sequencing

Rosamma Stephen (Copepoda) : Gave training in identification during a workshop on copepods (July 2006) at AWI Worked at WHOI (July 2006) on species page

Paulinose, V.T. : Specialist for Decapod larvae

Workshop on IndOBIS (September 25-26, 2006) Maximum diversity Indo-Pacific species

  • The Indian Ocean Biogeographic Information system (IndOBIS) is one of the 7 regional nodes established by OBIS

  • Responsible for collection, collation and dissemination of data and information about biodiversity in the Indian Ocean region through its portal

  • As member of SG, CMarZ introduced objectives, activities and achievements of CMarZ to participants