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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). Presentation by Larrah Selby & Sandi Colvin CNED 5303. Publisher. University of Minnesota Press Distributed by Pearson Assessments (formerly known as National Computer Systems Assessments, NCS) www.pearsonassessments.com. Background.

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Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory mmpi 2 l.jpg

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

Presentation by

Larrah Selby & Sandi Colvin

CNED 5303


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Publisher

  • University of Minnesota Press

  • Distributed by Pearson Assessments (formerly known as National Computer Systems Assessments, NCS)

    www.pearsonassessments.com


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Background

  • The MMPI was developed in the late 1930’s and first published in 1942

  • Original authors were Starke Hathaway and J. C. McKinley

  • 1100 original items and was cut down to 566 by the time it was first published

  • MMPI-2 released in 1989

  • Authors and consultants of MMPI-2 are Yossef Ben-Porath, James Butcher, W. Grant Dahlstrom, John Graham, and Auke Tellegen


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Background (cont.)

  • Revised in 2001-Version being reviewed

    • 84% of the original items are in new version in original or revised form

    • Some test elements revised

    • Added new clinical and validity scales

  • MMPI-A

    • Version used for adolescents age 14 to 18


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Purpose

  • Originally used to assess psychopathology

  • Current purpose “to assess a number of the major patterns of personality and emotional disorders” Mental Measurements Yearbook 11

  • Profile Analysis is the main interpretative framework of MMPI and MMPI-2


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Publisher’s recommended useswww.pearsonassessments.com

  • Assess major symptoms of social and personal maladjustment

  • Identify suitable candidates for high-risk public safety positions

  • Criminal justice & Correctional Departments - support classification, treatment and aid in making management decisions

  • Courtrooms - provides strong empirical foundation for a clinician’s expert testimony


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Recommended uses (continued)

  • Medical settings - assess patients and aids in designing effective treatment strategies, especially for pain management

  • Substance abuse programs – aids in evaluating participants and selecting appropriate treatment approaches

  • College and career counselors – aids in helping their clients with career choices and recommendations

  • Marriage and family counselors – provides insight for clients


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Available Formats

  • Available in English, Spanish, Hmong, and Canadian French

  • Paper-and-pencil, audiocassette recording, compact disc recording, box form (with each item on a separate card & client separates cards into true & false categories), and computer


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Pricing

  • Software - $89 plus annual licensing fee

  • Manual - $50

  • Basic service report

    • English softcover test booklets - $32 (10 in package)

    • Other languages sold individually at $6 a piece

    • Hardcover test booklet available only in English - $42

    • Answer sheets (packages of 25) - $20.50


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Pricing (continued)

  • Audiocassette - $80 available in English, Spanish, and Hmong

  • Compact Disc - $50 only available in English

  • Each Basic Service Report ranges from $7.50 to $9.00 depending on quantity ordered

  • If ordering less than 4 reports there is an additional fee of $4 per report


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Respondent Characteristics

  • 18 years or older

  • At least 6th grade reading level

  • Should be able to read and comprehend test questions for the paper/pencil and computer tests

  • Recommended IQ of 80 or higher


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Administrator Qualifications

  • Must be licensed to practice psychology independently

    OR

  • Have a graduate degree in psychology or a closely-related field and either graduate courses in tests and measurement or completion of a Pearson Assessments-approved workshop or other approved course

    OR

  • Provide proof as to the right to administer this type of test in jurisdiction


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Administration procedures

  • Quiet room

  • Good lighting

  • Comfortable chair and table

  • Before administration begins, provide information regarding nature of the test and give complete, clear instructions

  • Completion time = 60 to 90 minutes


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MMPI-2 Content

  • 567 true/false items

  • Numerous scales

    • 7 validity scales

    • 10 clinical scales

    • 15 supplementary scales

    • 15 content scales

    • 34 other subscales


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Five major validity scales

3 original

Lie (L)

Infrequency (F)

Correction (K)

2 new

Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN)

True Response Inconsistency (TRIN)

Examples of Clinical Scales

Depression (D)

Psychopathic Deviate (Pd)

Schizophrenia (Sc)

Masculinity-Femininity (Mf)

Source of much debate/controversy

Scales


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Raw scores are translated into T scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10

T score of 65 or higher is interpreted as pathology

(L) Scale and (F) Scale = raw score of 4 is mean, t score is 50

TRIN Scale – scores <6 and >12 suggest inconsistent responding – a t score of >80 suggests profile invalidity

VRIN Scale = a t score of >80 suggests inconsistent responding and profile may be invalid

Types of Scores Derived/Reported


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Scoring Options & Procedures

  • MICROTEST QTM Assessment system software – Enables the administrator to score assessments, report results, and store and export data on their own computer.

  • Mail-in Scoring Service – Answer sheets are mailed to the publisher for processing and results are returned back to the administrator within 24-48 hours of receipt.

  • Hand Scoring – Answer keys are available for the administrator to score the answer sheets.

  • Optical Scan Scoring – Allows administrator to score assessments at his/her site using special software.


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Normative sample consists of 1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 84 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.

From six states and included active duty military personal, college students, inpatient psychiatric patients, chronic pain patients, inpatient substance abuse patients, airline pilot applicants, and Native American adults on a federal reservation in Washington state

Ethnicity data: Men = 11% African American, 84% Caucasian, 3% Hispanic, and 2% other

Women = 13% African American, 82% Caucasian, 3% Hispanic, and 2% other.

50% of males and 42% of females in the restandardization group reported a bachelor’s degree or higher compared to 1980 census data of 20% males and 13% of females

20% of males and 13% of females reported professional occupations compared to census data of 16%

Normative Data


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Construct Validity

Content Scales are face valid

If test taker leaves more than 30 items unanswered, then the test is considered invalid and should not be interpreted.

Validity scales should be within normal limits

Validated against various samples of individuals with mental illness

Criterion group method of inventory construction

The validity of the revised scales has not been thoroughly established in clinical settings

Validity Information


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Reliability Information

  • Stability Reliability (test/retest)

  • Split-half Reliability on some of the subscales

  • Personality tests have lower validity and reliability coefficients than achievement and ability tests and produce a larger Standard Error of Measurement


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Statistical Information

  • Manual includes T score conversion tables and uniform & linear score tables


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Most widely used and researched personality inventory

Some reasons respondants might omit an item or items on the validity scale:

Item is considered offensive or personal

Reading difficulties

Rebelliousness

Carelessness

Confusion

Obsession or overideation resulting in indecisiveness

Severe psychomotor retardation resulting in insufficient energy to complete the task

Desire to look good

Lack of trust in the examiner

Interesting Facts


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Limitations of MMPI-2

  • Influenced by variables

  • Hard to generalize to other populations

  • Some experts argue that research on MMPI cannot be generalized to MMPI-2 and that they may not be equivalent measures – need more research on MMPI-2

  • Misuse

  • Culturally biased?


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The different formats are made available to reach as many persons as possible: blind, illiterate, learning disabled, different languages, etc.

Has Scales that detect if test taker is responding in a socially desirable way or faking (K scale)

Backed by extent of empirical research

Has depression scale and anxiety scale in same test – first personality inventory to do so

Advantages of Using MMPI-2


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Evaluation of MMPI-2

  • Hard to use for every population

  • Extremely long and consuming – may be hard to convince clients to take it

  • Clients may be hesitant to take it if they have heard that it is only for “crazy” people

  • It is very comprehensive and could be a good diagnostic tool when combined with other interviews (e.g. MSE)


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And now for some fun……..


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References

  • Austin, J. T. (1994). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) [Review of MMPI-2] [Electronic Version]. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 27, 178-185.

  • Butcher, J. N., & Williams, C. L. (2000). Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Interpretation (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Craig, R. J. (1999). Interpreting personality tests: A clinical manual for the MMPI-2, MCMI-III, CPI-R, and 16PF. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  • Drummond, R. J. (2004). Appraisal procedures for counselors and helping professionals (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

  • Kramer, J. J., & Close-Conoley, J. (Eds.). (1992). The Eleventh Mental Measurements Yearbook. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

  • Niolon, R. (n.d.). The Minnesota, Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Retrieved November 10, 2004, from http://www.psychpage.com/objective/mmpi2_overview.htm

  • Pearson Assessments. (n.d.). MMPI-2™ (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2™). Retrieved November 9, 2004, from http://www.pearsonassessments.com/tests/mmpi_2.htm#scales


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Questions??????


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