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MEAT GOAT 101 Market Goat Production. Kipp Brown - Area Agent 4-H Livestock/Meat Goats Mississippi State University Extension Service. MEAT GOATS 101. What is a Meat Goat? Any breed or cross breed of goat that is used in the production of goat meat!.

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meat goat 101 market goat production

MEAT GOAT 101Market Goat Production

Kipp Brown - Area Agent

4-H Livestock/Meat Goats

Mississippi State University Extension Service

meat goats 101
MEAT GOATS 101

What is a Meat Goat?

Any breed or cross breed of goat that is used in the production of goat meat!

slide3
THE RULES!!Identify and Secure a MarketDo Not Borrow Money to Start a Goat EnterpriseCover Your Backside
slide7

The U.S. Goat Industry

Show Wethers

Showingseedstock

Land management

MEAT PRODUCTION

large and small producerscommercial and hobby

Dairy

Fiber

Pets

Know where you fit.

types of meat goats
Types of Meat Goats
  • Boer is most widely known and popular
  • Kiko is gaining in popularity
types of meat goats10
Types of Meat Goats

This is a 100% full blood Boer yearling doe

types of meat goats11
Types of Meat Goats

This older doe is 75% Boer and 25% Spanish breeding

types of meat goats12
Types of Meat Goats

This young doe is 75% Boer and 25% Pygmy

types of meat goats13
Types of Meat Goats

This young doe is 75% Boer and 25% Nubian

types of meat goats14
Types of Meat Goats

This older doe is 50% Boer and 50% Nubian

types of meat goats15
Types of Meat Goats

This old doe is a typical “meat type” Spanish goat

meat goats 10119
MEAT GOATS 101

What factors are important to insure a successful enterprise?

Nutrition

Reproduction

Health

Marketing

Facilities

nutrition
Nutrition..

Is the Highest Cost Associated with Production!

nutrition21
Nutrition..
  • Doe Nutrition
    • Divide into feeding groups
      • Dry, Lactating, BCS,
  • Buck Nutrition
    • Ca:P ratio – Clean water
  • Kid Nutrition
    • Creep feed until marketed - Pelleted feed
doe nutrition
Doe Nutrition..

Define the stage of production and feed accordingly

  • Dry
  • Breeding
  • Early Gestation
  • Late gestation
  • Lactation
dry period
Dry Period..
  • Period between weaning and breeding
  • Lowest nutrient requirements
    • Good quality pasture should meet most requirement needs
    • Regain weight lost during lactation
      • Need 2% of body weight
      • Need minerals free choice - salt, Ca, P
    • No pasture? Grass Hay and .5-1.5# 16% CP pelleted (preferred) ration
breeding period
Breeding Period..
  • Increase feed intake 2 - 3 weeks prior to breeding – Known as “Flushing”
    • Increase ovulation rate 5 - 10%
  • Flushing
    • 1#/Hd/Day of Corn
    • Monitor body condition score to avoid under or over conditioned goats
      • Too fat or too thin
      • Best at BCS 2 - Greater response
early gestation
Early Gestation..
  • First 100 days (gestation 150 days)
  • Similar to dry feeding
  • Very little fetal growth
  • Take advantage of forage
  • Monitor body condition score
late gestation
Late Gestation..
  • Last 50 days (gestation time 150 days)
  • Most critical time – 70% of fetal growth
    • Poor nutrition costs production
      • Low birth weights, mothering ability, low milk production, ketosis
  • Utilize pasture and supplement feeding
    • Need 4 - 4.5% of body weight
    • 2# - 4# good quality hay + 2# corn
lactation
Lactation..
  • Doe nutrition is the key to early kid growth
  • Lactation peaks at 2 - 4 weeks
  • Utilize pasture
  • Feed at 4 - 5% body weight
    • 3# - 4# good hay + 3# - 4# grain
buck nutrition
Buck Nutrition
  • Utilize pasture when available
  • Monitor body condition 3-4 weeks prior to breeding
    • 4# of hay + 2# of grain
  • Monitor body condition during breeding
what to feed
What to Feed..
  • 14 - 16% CP ration
  • 50 - 60% TDN
  • .75 - 1% ammonium chloride
  • Coccidiastat
  • Salt and mineral
  • Ca:P @ 2:1 ratio
kid nutrition
Kid Nutrition..
  • Start kids on creep as soon as possible
    • Feed a 16% CP pelleted ration
    • Contains a coccidiastat
    • Maintains a 2:1 Ca to P ratio

Keep fresh water available in smaller containers that kids can reach at all times!

reproduction economic success
Reproduction..Economic Success!
  • Estrous cycle is 18 - 21 days
  • Short day breeders (Oct. - Dec.)
  • Flushing
    • ½ - 1# per head per day of corn
    • Deworm prior
    • Turn on to new pasture
  • Monitor BCS (1 - 5)
    • BCS of 2 for best results
reproduction
Reproduction..
  • The Buck effect
    • Synchronizing
  • Controlled breeding season
    • Efficient management of facilities
  • Puberty
    • 6-10 months
      • Breed doe kids – weight (80#)
      • Separate buck kids
reproduction33
Reproduction..
  • Accelerated Kidding
    • 3 crops in 2 years
    • High input
  • BSE on Bucks
    • Semen, libido, testicles, health
    • Trim feet
    • Good body condition
health
Health..
  • Diseases and Problems
    • Ketosis
    • Overeating
    • Parasites (worms)
    • Coccidia
    • Foot rot or scald
    • Pinkeye
    • General sickness
health last trimester
Health..Last Trimester
  • Ketosis
    • Feeding management
  • Vaccinate for Clostridial organisms, tetanus (CD/T) 2-4 weeks prior
    • Gives immunity to the kids
  • Vitamin E and Selenium (if needed)
  • Deworm – periparturient rise (check dewormer for abortion possibility)
health36
Health..

Deworming

  • Establish a program
  • Check fecal samples
  • Use FAMACHA
    • Deworm only when needed
    • Rotate wormers yearly or when there is no response
      • “Families” or classes of products
    • Give orally
health37
Health..

Deworming

  • Hold feed - leave in pen (12-48 hrs)
  • Rotate to clean pastures
  • Do not under dose
    • Metabolism is 3.5 times that of larger species
    • Rule of thumb – Use at 2.5 X cattle rate
    • Calculate rate based on the heaviest doe
  • Select animals with resistance
health kidding time
HealthKidding Time
  • Kid in clean areas
  • Dip – Snip – Strip
    • Iodine navel
    • Trim navel
    • Inspect udder
  • Give 1ml BoSe
  • See that kid gets colostrum
health kids 1 to 4 weeks of age
Health..Kids1 to 4 weeks of age
  • Disbud (7 - 10 days)
  • Castrate (club goats after 8 weeks)
  • Vaccinate with CD/T (14 – 28 days)
  • Watch for scours
    • E-coli
    • Coccidia
health kids at weaning
Health..Kids at Weaning
  • Give booster vaccinations
  • Deworm
  • Treat for Coccidia (corid or other preventative)
  • Get on full feed as quickly as possible (medicated if feasible)
  • Reduce feed and water to does
  • Trim does feet
slide41

Other Diseases of Concern

  • Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)
    • Internal and lymph node abscesses
    • Chronic, contagious
slide42

Other Diseases of Concern

  • Caprine Arthritic Encephalitis (CAE)
    • Arthritis, encephalitis
    • Colostrum is primary mode of transmission
marketing identify your market
Marketing..Identify your market
  • Club Goat or Meat Goat?
  • Time of year to market
  • Type and size of animal
    • Weights and sex
    • Ethnic demand
    • Commercial market
  • 50 - 60# carcass = 100# goat
slide44

Goat and Goat Meat Marketing

  • Marketing of goats and goat meat is not well characterized
  • Purchasers of goat meat are generally ethnic consumers
  • Different ethnic groups prefer different types of goat meat (animal age, cut, preparation)
slide45

Marketing Options

LiveMeat

- direct to consumer - licensed plant

- market channel - inspected facility,

* trader animal, & product

* auction

* market coop

* local slaughter plant

Marketing channels and meat inspection provide utility or they would not exist

slide46

Local Producers

Traders

Local

Auctions

Marketing

Cooperatives

Individual

Consumers

Regional Auctions

Processors

Retailers

Wholesalers

Restaurants

General Consumers

Goat Market Channels

slide47

Marketing Strategies

  • Use an existing marketing channel
  • Integrate market channels into your enterprise
    • retained ownership through processing
    • special markets (direct sales)
  • Partner with other segments of the marketing channel

A specific marketing channel provides utility or it would not exist !!

facilities
Facilities..
  • Corrals should be 5-6 feet tall
    • Net wire or 4 X 4 welded wire
  • Chutes
    • 12” wide, smooth sides, slightly curved
      • Well lighted
      • Movement uphill
fencing
Fencing..
  • Net Wire
    • 12” vs 6” wire; 48” tall
    • Barbed wire on top and bottom
  • Electric Fencing
    • High maintenance
    • Good for temporary

or rotation systems

  • Combination of net and electric
  • Goat proof?
facilities50
Facilities..
  • Sheds
    • 5 sq. ft. per animal
    • Two sides minimum with one side movable
    • Kidding area
      • Jugs or hutches
predators
Predators..
  • Dogs, coyotes, feral hogs
  • Fencing is your best deterrent
  • Guard animals
    • Dogs, llamas, donkeys
  • Night penning
  • Kidding in protected areas
  • Traps, snares, hunting
slide52

Estimated Annual Expenses for a Meat-Type Goat Operation in Mississippi, 1996*Does on pasture with supplement during breeding and kidding*Kids are creep-fed grain and sold at 6 to 7 months of age, weighing an average of 90 pounds

production parameters
Acres per doe 0.25

# of does 40.00

# of bucks 1.00

# feed/day(b/d) 2.00

Days fed (b/d) 74.00

Av. # fed (kids) 2.50

Days fed (kids) 150

# hay/day (b/d) 3.00

Days fed (b/d) 150

# hay/day (kids) 1.00

Days fed (kids) 150

Kids sold/doe 1.50

Investment/doe $150

Investment/buck $500

Production Parameters:
slide54

Item

Unit

Price(Dollars)

Quantity

Amount(Dollars)

Per doe

Yourfarm

Direct Expenses

Feed

Does and bucks

Cwt

$ 9.00

60.68

$ 546.12

$ 13.65

_________

Kids

Cwt

12.00

225.00

2,700.00

67.50

_________

Hay

Does and bucks

Bale

2.00

369.00

738.00

18.45

_________

Kids

Bale

2.00

180.00

360.00

9.00

_________

slide55

Pasture maintenance

Acre

10.00

10.00

100.00

2.50

__________

Salt and minerals

Doe

0.65

40.00

26.00

0.65

__________

Vet/health management

Doe

2.50

40.00

100.00

2.50

__________

Utilities

Month

5.00

12.00

60.00

1.50

__________

Gas, fuel, oil

Month

10.00

12.00

120.00

3.00

__________

Repairs

Dollar

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

__________

Labor

Hour

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

__________

Misc. Supplies

Doe

2.00

40.00

80.00

2.00

__________

slide56

Marketing

Kid

2.00

60.00

120.00

3.00

__________

Insurance

Dollar

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

__________

Dues

Year

35.00

1.00

35.00

0.88

__________

Interest on operating capital

Dollar

0.09

1,869.42

168.25

4.21

__________

Total direct expenses

$5,153.37

$128.83

__________

Total fixed expenses

Dollar

$6,000.00

0.09

$540.00

$13.50

__________

Total specified expenses

$5,693.37

$142.33

__________

Break-even point in dollars/cwt sold (direct expenses only)

$95.00

slide57

Notes:

    • This budget is for planning purposes--use only as a guide. Use column on the right to adjust these figures to fit your operation.
    • The market for goats in Mississippi is not well-defined. Income figures depend on location and individual access to market outlets.
    • Expense items are based on the production parameters specified.
meat goat vs club goat what s the difference
Meat Goat vs. Club Goat? What’s the difference?
  • Meat goat - sold by the pound
    • Market dictates price per #
  • Club goat - sold by the head
    • Market dictates price per head
    • Sold by the # at end of project
understanding differences
Club Goat

Structural correctness

Heavy muscled

Volume and capacity

Style and balance

Predictable growth

Meat Goat

Heavy muscled

Rapid growth and performance

Easily maintained

Understanding Differences..
slide61

Influences on Lean Meat Yield

  • Conformation- relative shape of body comparing size, mass, and shape of muscles compared with size, mass, and shape of body
  • Relative proportion of muscle to fat/bone
  • Relative body size (weight or circumference of heart girth, barrel, or limbs)
slide62

Selection Classes

  • 199 highest conformation
  • Selection 1 150 middle conformation
  • 100 lowest conformation
  • 299 highest conformation
  • Selection 2 250 middle conformation
  • 200 lowest conformation
  • 399 highest conformation
  • Selection 3 350 middle conformation
  • 300 lowest conformation
slide63

Selection 1

Superior meat-type conformation

Thickly muscled as indicated by

  • Pronounced (bulging) outside leg
  • Full (rounded) back strip (rib and loin, L. dorsi)
  • Moderately thick outside shoulder
slide64

Selection 2

Average meat-type conformation

Moderately muscled as indicated by

  • Slightly thick and slightly pronounced outside leg
  • Slightly full (flat or slightly shallow) back strip (rib and loin, L. dorsi)
  • slightly thick to slightly thin outside shoulder
slide65

Selection 3

Inferior meat-type conformation

Moderately muscled as indicated by

  • Narrow legs, back, shoulders in relation to body length
  • Very angular and shrunken appearance
  • Deficient muscling in leg, back strip (rib and loin, L. dorsi), shoulder
slide69

C

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p

a

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i

s

o

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s

slide72

Other Carcass Evaluation Criteria

  • Flank lean color – consumers desire light pink meat color
  • Kidney, heart, and pelvic fat- fat is left in carcass to prevent drying, but is waste
  • Subcutaneous fat cover score –
    • external fat deposited behind shoulder and over ribs, not over back or legs
    • depth is not uniformly distributed for measurement
slide76

Goat Carcass Fabrication and Cuts

  • Foodservice and many retail companies want standardization of primal and retail cuts, usually portion controlled
  • Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications (IMPS) provide for portion control and uniform cutting/fabrication
  • IMPS for fresh goat (IMPS series 11) were developed for goat meat based upon carcass sizes, resulting in 5 different cutting styles
slide77

Fresh Goat IMPS Purchaser Specified Options

  • Style (platter, roasting, barbeque, food service, hotel)
  • Cut identification (primal cut or location on carcass)
  • Boneless or bone-in, tail length, special cutting instructions
  • Added ingredients such as enhancement solutions (marinades; salt/water/phosphates)
  • Conformation selection (1, 2, 3)
  • Class (buck, doe, wether)
  • Maturity (kid, yearling, goat)
slide78

Fresh Goat IMPS Purchaser Specified Options

  • Breed type, forage type, organic certification
  • Slaughter (Halal, Kosher, other)
  • Refrigeration (fresh/refrigerated or frozen)
  • Weight or thickness of portion cut
  • Fat trim level on cut
  • Netting/tying
  • Packaging and packing requirements
  • Quality assurance requirements
slide79

Carcass Weight Range

IMPS Style

Recommended Skeletal Cuts

Recommended Muscular Cuts

15 lb. or less

Platter

Roasting

15-30 lb.

Barbeque

20-40 lb.

Food Service

30-40 lb.

40 lb. or more

Hotel

Fabrication Guide to IMPS Cuts

the club goat project91
The Club Goat Project
  • Fastest growing project in the Junior Livestock Program
    • Number increased over 500% since first showing at Dixie National Junior Roundup
  • Least expensive project in the program
    • Average price @ $100 - $300
    • Feed and maintenance @ $100 - $150
club goat projects
Club Goat Projects..
  • 16 – 18% CP fed free choice
    • Feeders - goat proof
    • Creep feed to 80# - then hand feed
      • 2:1 Ca:P, salt and mineral
      • 1% ammonium chloride
      • Coccidiastat
  • Hay-small amounts
  • Clean fresh water daily
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