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MEAT GOAT 101 Market Goat Production. Kipp Brown - Area Agent 4-H Livestock/Meat Goats Mississippi State University Extension Service. MEAT GOATS 101. What is a Meat Goat? Any breed or cross breed of goat that is used in the production of goat meat!.

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Meat goat 101 market goat production l.jpg

MEAT GOAT 101Market Goat Production

Kipp Brown - Area Agent

4-H Livestock/Meat Goats

Mississippi State University Extension Service


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MEAT GOATS 101

What is a Meat Goat?

Any breed or cross breed of goat that is used in the production of goat meat!


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THE RULES!!Identify and Secure a MarketDo Not Borrow Money to Start a Goat EnterpriseCover Your Backside


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Identify and secure a market!Who?Where?What?When?


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Don’t borrow money to start a goat enterprise!


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Always Cover Your Backside!Have a backup planKnow your limitsRefer back to rules 1 and 2


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The U.S. Goat Industry

Show Wethers

Showingseedstock

Land management

MEAT PRODUCTION

large and small producerscommercial and hobby

Dairy

Fiber

Pets

Know where you fit.


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So…What does a meat goat look like?


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Types of Meat Goats

  • Boer is most widely known and popular

  • Kiko is gaining in popularity


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Types of Meat Goats

This is a 100% full blood Boer yearling doe


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Types of Meat Goats

This older doe is 75% Boer and 25% Spanish breeding


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Types of Meat Goats

This young doe is 75% Boer and 25% Pygmy


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Types of Meat Goats

This young doe is 75% Boer and 25% Nubian


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Types of Meat Goats

This older doe is 50% Boer and 50% Nubian


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Types of Meat Goats

This old doe is a typical “meat type” Spanish goat


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Full Blood Boer Buck


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Full Blood Buck X Commercial Doe =


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Market Meat Goats!


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MEAT GOATS 101

What factors are important to insure a successful enterprise?

Nutrition

Reproduction

Health

Marketing

Facilities


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Nutrition..

Is the Highest Cost Associated with Production!


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Nutrition..

  • Doe Nutrition

    • Divide into feeding groups

      • Dry, Lactating, BCS,

  • Buck Nutrition

    • Ca:P ratio – Clean water

  • Kid Nutrition

    • Creep feed until marketed - Pelleted feed


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Doe Nutrition..

Define the stage of production and feed accordingly

  • Dry

  • Breeding

  • Early Gestation

  • Late gestation

  • Lactation


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Dry Period..

  • Period between weaning and breeding

  • Lowest nutrient requirements

    • Good quality pasture should meet most requirement needs

    • Regain weight lost during lactation

      • Need 2% of body weight

      • Need minerals free choice - salt, Ca, P

    • No pasture? Grass Hay and .5-1.5# 16% CP pelleted (preferred) ration


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Breeding Period..

  • Increase feed intake 2 - 3 weeks prior to breeding – Known as “Flushing”

    • Increase ovulation rate 5 - 10%

  • Flushing

    • 1#/Hd/Day of Corn

    • Monitor body condition score to avoid under or over conditioned goats

      • Too fat or too thin

      • Best at BCS 2 - Greater response


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Early Gestation..

  • First 100 days (gestation 150 days)

  • Similar to dry feeding

  • Very little fetal growth

  • Take advantage of forage

  • Monitor body condition score


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Late Gestation..

  • Last 50 days (gestation time 150 days)

  • Most critical time – 70% of fetal growth

    • Poor nutrition costs production

      • Low birth weights, mothering ability, low milk production, ketosis

  • Utilize pasture and supplement feeding

    • Need 4 - 4.5% of body weight

    • 2# - 4# good quality hay + 2# corn


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Lactation..

  • Doe nutrition is the key to early kid growth

  • Lactation peaks at 2 - 4 weeks

  • Utilize pasture

  • Feed at 4 - 5% body weight

    • 3# - 4# good hay + 3# - 4# grain


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Buck Nutrition

  • Utilize pasture when available

  • Monitor body condition 3-4 weeks prior to breeding

    • 4# of hay + 2# of grain

  • Monitor body condition during breeding


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What to Feed..

  • 14 - 16% CP ration

  • 50 - 60% TDN

  • .75 - 1% ammonium chloride

  • Coccidiastat

  • Salt and mineral

  • Ca:P @ 2:1 ratio


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Kid Nutrition..

  • Start kids on creep as soon as possible

    • Feed a 16% CP pelleted ration

    • Contains a coccidiastat

    • Maintains a 2:1 Ca to P ratio

      Keep fresh water available in smaller containers that kids can reach at all times!


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Reproduction..Economic Success!

  • Estrous cycle is 18 - 21 days

  • Short day breeders (Oct. - Dec.)

  • Flushing

    • ½ - 1# per head per day of corn

    • Deworm prior

    • Turn on to new pasture

  • Monitor BCS (1 - 5)

    • BCS of 2 for best results


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Reproduction..

  • The Buck effect

    • Synchronizing

  • Controlled breeding season

    • Efficient management of facilities

  • Puberty

    • 6-10 months

      • Breed doe kids – weight (80#)

      • Separate buck kids


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Reproduction..

  • Accelerated Kidding

    • 3 crops in 2 years

    • High input

  • BSE on Bucks

    • Semen, libido, testicles, health

    • Trim feet

    • Good body condition


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Health..

  • Diseases and Problems

    • Ketosis

    • Overeating

    • Parasites (worms)

    • Coccidia

    • Foot rot or scald

    • Pinkeye

    • General sickness


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Health..Last Trimester

  • Ketosis

    • Feeding management

  • Vaccinate for Clostridial organisms, tetanus (CD/T) 2-4 weeks prior

    • Gives immunity to the kids

  • Vitamin E and Selenium (if needed)

  • Deworm – periparturient rise (check dewormer for abortion possibility)


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Health..

Deworming

  • Establish a program

  • Check fecal samples

  • Use FAMACHA

    • Deworm only when needed

    • Rotate wormers yearly or when there is no response

      • “Families” or classes of products

    • Give orally


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Health..

Deworming

  • Hold feed - leave in pen (12-48 hrs)

  • Rotate to clean pastures

  • Do not under dose

    • Metabolism is 3.5 times that of larger species

    • Rule of thumb – Use at 2.5 X cattle rate

    • Calculate rate based on the heaviest doe

  • Select animals with resistance


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HealthKidding Time

  • Kid in clean areas

  • Dip – Snip – Strip

    • Iodine navel

    • Trim navel

    • Inspect udder

  • Give 1ml BoSe

  • See that kid gets colostrum


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Health..Kids1 to 4 weeks of age

  • Disbud (7 - 10 days)

  • Castrate (club goats after 8 weeks)

  • Vaccinate with CD/T (14 – 28 days)

  • Watch for scours

    • E-coli

    • Coccidia


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Health..Kids at Weaning

  • Give booster vaccinations

  • Deworm

  • Treat for Coccidia (corid or other preventative)

  • Get on full feed as quickly as possible (medicated if feasible)

  • Reduce feed and water to does

  • Trim does feet


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Other Diseases of Concern

  • Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)

    • Internal and lymph node abscesses

    • Chronic, contagious


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Other Diseases of Concern

  • Caprine Arthritic Encephalitis (CAE)

    • Arthritis, encephalitis

    • Colostrum is primary mode of transmission


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Marketing..Identify your market

  • Club Goat or Meat Goat?

  • Time of year to market

  • Type and size of animal

    • Weights and sex

    • Ethnic demand

    • Commercial market

  • 50 - 60# carcass = 100# goat


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Goat and Goat Meat Marketing

  • Marketing of goats and goat meat is not well characterized

  • Purchasers of goat meat are generally ethnic consumers

  • Different ethnic groups prefer different types of goat meat (animal age, cut, preparation)


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Marketing Options

LiveMeat

- direct to consumer - licensed plant

- market channel - inspected facility,

* trader animal, & product

* auction

* market coop

* local slaughter plant

Marketing channels and meat inspection provide utility or they would not exist


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Local Producers

Traders

Local

Auctions

Marketing

Cooperatives

Individual

Consumers

Regional Auctions

Processors

Retailers

Wholesalers

Restaurants

General Consumers

Goat Market Channels


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Marketing Strategies

  • Use an existing marketing channel

  • Integrate market channels into your enterprise

    • retained ownership through processing

    • special markets (direct sales)

  • Partner with other segments of the marketing channel

    A specific marketing channel provides utility or it would not exist !!


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Facilities..

  • Corrals should be 5-6 feet tall

    • Net wire or 4 X 4 welded wire

  • Chutes

    • 12” wide, smooth sides, slightly curved

      • Well lighted

      • Movement uphill


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Fencing..

  • Net Wire

    • 12” vs 6” wire; 48” tall

    • Barbed wire on top and bottom

  • Electric Fencing

    • High maintenance

    • Good for temporary

      or rotation systems

  • Combination of net and electric

  • Goat proof?


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Facilities..

  • Sheds

    • 5 sq. ft. per animal

    • Two sides minimum with one side movable

    • Kidding area

      • Jugs or hutches


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Predators..

  • Dogs, coyotes, feral hogs

  • Fencing is your best deterrent

  • Guard animals

    • Dogs, llamas, donkeys

  • Night penning

  • Kidding in protected areas

  • Traps, snares, hunting


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Estimated Annual Expenses for a Meat-Type Goat Operation in Mississippi, 1996*Does on pasture with supplement during breeding and kidding*Kids are creep-fed grain and sold at 6 to 7 months of age, weighing an average of 90 pounds


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Acres per doe0.25

# of does40.00

# of bucks1.00

# feed/day(b/d)2.00

Days fed (b/d)74.00

Av. # fed (kids)2.50

Days fed (kids)150

# hay/day (b/d)3.00

Days fed (b/d)150

# hay/day (kids)1.00

Days fed (kids)150

Kids sold/doe1.50

Investment/doe$150

Investment/buck$500

Production Parameters:


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Item

Unit

Price(Dollars)

Quantity

Amount(Dollars)

Per doe

Yourfarm

Direct Expenses

Feed

Does and bucks

Cwt

$ 9.00

60.68

$ 546.12

$ 13.65

_________

Kids

Cwt

12.00

225.00

2,700.00

67.50

_________

Hay

Does and bucks

Bale

2.00

369.00

738.00

18.45

_________

Kids

Bale

2.00

180.00

360.00

9.00

_________


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Pasture maintenance

Acre

10.00

10.00

100.00

2.50

__________

Salt and minerals

Doe

0.65

40.00

26.00

0.65

__________

Vet/health management

Doe

2.50

40.00

100.00

2.50

__________

Utilities

Month

5.00

12.00

60.00

1.50

__________

Gas, fuel, oil

Month

10.00

12.00

120.00

3.00

__________

Repairs

Dollar

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

__________

Labor

Hour

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

__________

Misc. Supplies

Doe

2.00

40.00

80.00

2.00

__________


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Marketing

Kid

2.00

60.00

120.00

3.00

__________

Insurance

Dollar

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

__________

Dues

Year

35.00

1.00

35.00

0.88

__________

Interest on operating capital

Dollar

0.09

1,869.42

168.25

4.21

__________

Total direct expenses

$5,153.37

$128.83

__________

Total fixed expenses

Dollar

$6,000.00

0.09

$540.00

$13.50

__________

Total specified expenses

$5,693.37

$142.33

__________

Break-even point in dollars/cwt sold (direct expenses only)

$95.00


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  • Notes:

    • This budget is for planning purposes--use only as a guide. Use column on the right to adjust these figures to fit your operation.

    • The market for goats in Mississippi is not well-defined. Income figures depend on location and individual access to market outlets.

    • Expense items are based on the production parameters specified.


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Meat Goat vs. Club Goat? What’s the difference?

  • Meat goat - sold by the pound

    • Market dictates price per #

  • Club goat - sold by the head

    • Market dictates price per head

    • Sold by the # at end of project


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Club Goat

Structural correctness

Heavy muscled

Volume and capacity

Style and balance

Predictable growth

Meat Goat

Heavy muscled

Rapid growth and performance

Easily maintained

Understanding Differences..


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Ideal Meat Goat?


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Influences on Lean Meat Yield

  • Conformation- relative shape of body comparing size, mass, and shape of muscles compared with size, mass, and shape of body

  • Relative proportion of muscle to fat/bone

  • Relative body size (weight or circumference of heart girth, barrel, or limbs)


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Selection Classes

  • 199 highest conformation

  • Selection 1 150 middle conformation

  • 100 lowest conformation

  • 299 highest conformation

  • Selection 2 250 middle conformation

  • 200 lowest conformation

  • 399 highest conformation

  • Selection 3 350 middle conformation

  • 300 lowest conformation


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Selection 1

Superior meat-type conformation

Thickly muscled as indicated by

  • Pronounced (bulging) outside leg

  • Full (rounded) back strip (rib and loin, L. dorsi)

  • Moderately thick outside shoulder


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Selection 2

Average meat-type conformation

Moderately muscled as indicated by

  • Slightly thick and slightly pronounced outside leg

  • Slightly full (flat or slightly shallow) back strip (rib and loin, L. dorsi)

  • slightly thick to slightly thin outside shoulder


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Selection 3

Inferior meat-type conformation

Moderately muscled as indicated by

  • Narrow legs, back, shoulders in relation to body length

  • Very angular and shrunken appearance

  • Deficient muscling in leg, back strip (rib and loin, L. dorsi), shoulder


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Selection 150


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Selection 250


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Selection 370


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C

o

m

p

a

r

i

s

o

n

s


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Goat Carcass Selection Classification

150 250 350


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Side carcass views

150 250 350


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Other Carcass Evaluation Criteria

  • Flank lean color – consumers desire light pink meat color

  • Kidney, heart, and pelvic fat- fat is left in carcass to prevent drying, but is waste

  • Subcutaneous fat cover score –

    • external fat deposited behind shoulder and over ribs, not over back or legs

    • depth is not uniformly distributed for measurement


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Lean Flank Color


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Kidney, Heart and Pelvic Fat, %


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Subcutaneous Fat Over Score


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Goat Carcass Fabrication and Cuts

  • Foodservice and many retail companies want standardization of primal and retail cuts, usually portion controlled

  • Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications (IMPS) provide for portion control and uniform cutting/fabrication

  • IMPS for fresh goat (IMPS series 11) were developed for goat meat based upon carcass sizes, resulting in 5 different cutting styles


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Fresh Goat IMPS Purchaser Specified Options

  • Style (platter, roasting, barbeque, food service, hotel)

  • Cut identification (primal cut or location on carcass)

  • Boneless or bone-in, tail length, special cutting instructions

  • Added ingredients such as enhancement solutions (marinades; salt/water/phosphates)

  • Conformation selection (1, 2, 3)

  • Class (buck, doe, wether)

  • Maturity (kid, yearling, goat)


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Fresh Goat IMPS Purchaser Specified Options

  • Breed type, forage type, organic certification

  • Slaughter (Halal, Kosher, other)

  • Refrigeration (fresh/refrigerated or frozen)

  • Weight or thickness of portion cut

  • Fat trim level on cut

  • Netting/tying

  • Packaging and packing requirements

  • Quality assurance requirements


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Carcass Weight Range

IMPS Style

Recommended Skeletal Cuts

Recommended Muscular Cuts

15 lb. or less

Platter

Roasting

15-30 lb.

Barbeque

20-40 lb.

Food Service

30-40 lb.

40 lb. or more

Hotel

Fabrication Guide to IMPS Cuts


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Meat Goat Class


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Meat Goats 1 2 3 & 4


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Meat Goats 4 3 2 & 1


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Meat Goats 1 2 3 & 4


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Meat Goat Loin Eye 2


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Meat Goat Loin Eye 3


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Meat Goat Loin Eye 1


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Meat Goat Loin Eye 4


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Ideal Club Goat?


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The Club Goat Project


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The Club Goat Project

  • Fastest growing project in the Junior Livestock Program

    • Number increased over 500% since first showing at Dixie National Junior Roundup

  • Least expensive project in the program

    • Average price @ $100 - $300

    • Feed and maintenance @ $100 - $150


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Club Goat Projects..

  • 16 – 18% CP fed free choice

    • Feeders - goat proof

    • Creep feed to 80# - then hand feed

      • 2:1 Ca:P, salt and mineral

      • 1% ammonium chloride

      • Coccidiastat

  • Hay-small amounts

  • Clean fresh water daily


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The End!


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