The Order Entry/Sales
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The Order Entry/Sales (OE/S) Process Learning Objectives Understand relationship between the OE/S process and its business environment Appreciate the potential of the OE/S process to assist management decision making.

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Slide1 l.jpg

The Order Entry/Sales

(OE/S)

Process


Learning objectives l.jpg
Learning Objectives

  • Understand relationship between the OE/S process and its business environment

  • Appreciate the potential of the OE/S process to assist management decision making.

  • Become familiar with technologies commonly used in contemporary implementations for the OE/S process

  • Achieve a reasonable level of understanding of the OE/S process’ logical and physical characteristics

  • Know the OE/S process and information process control goals and to recognize the significance of some business process control plans commonly used to control these processes

OE/S


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • The order entry/sales (OE/S) process includes the first four steps in the order-to-cash process

    • pre-sales activities

    • sales order processing

    • picking and packing the goods

    • shipping

  • Billing and processing the customer payment, are described in Chapter 11, the billing/accounts receivable/cash receipts process


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Process Definition and Functions

  • The primary function of the OE/S process is to create information flows that support the following:

    • Repetitive work routines of the sales order department, the credit department, and the shipping department (Horizontal)

    • Decision needs of those who manage various sales and marketing functions (Vertical)


Horizontal view oe s l.jpg

VP marketing

VP finance

VP logistics

2. Credit

request

Customer

1. Customer

order

3. Credit

approval

Credit Department

Sales Order department

4b. Picking

ticket

Warehouse

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4c. Sales

order

5. Completed

Picking ticket

4d. Sales

order

6b. Shipping

notice

B/AR/CR

Shipping department

6c. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

General ledger

6a. Shipping

notice

Carrier

Horizontal View OE/S

1.Customer places order


Horizontal view oe s6 l.jpg

VP marketing

VP finance

VP logistics

2. Credit

request

Customer

1. Customer

order

3. Credit

approval

Credit Department

Sales Order department

4b. Picking

ticket

Warehouse

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4c. Sales

order

5. Completed

Picking ticket

4d. Sales

order

6b. Shipping

notice

B/AR/CR

Shipping department

6c. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

General ledger

6a. Shipping

notice

Carrier

Horizontal View OE/S

2. Sales order department requests credit approval from the credit department


Horizontal view oe s7 l.jpg

VP marketing

VP marketing

VP finance

VP finance

VP logistics

VP logistics

2. Credit

request

2. Credit

request

Customer

Customer

1. Customer

order

1. Customer

order

3. Credit

approval

3. Credit

approval

Credit Department

Credit Department

Sales Order department

Sales Order department

4b. Picking

ticket

4b. Picking

ticket

Warehouse

Warehouse

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4c. Sales

order

4c. Sales

order

5. Completed

Picking ticket

5. Completed

Picking ticket

4d. Sales

order

4d. Sales

order

6b. Shipping

notice

6b. Shipping

notice

B/AR/CR

B/AR/CR

Shipping department

Shipping department

6c. Shipping

notice

6c. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

General ledger

General ledger

6a. Shipping

notice

6a. Shipping

notice

Carrier

Carrier

Horizontal View OE/S

3. Credit department informs sales order department of disposition of credit request


Horizontal view oe s8 l.jpg

VP marketing

VP finance

VP logistics

2. Credit

request

Customer

1. Customer

order

3. Credit

approval

Credit Department

Sales Order department

4b. Picking

ticket

Warehouse

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4c. Sales

order

5. Completed

Picking ticket

4d. Sales

order

6b. Shipping

notice

B/AR/CR

Shipping department

6c. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

General ledger

6a. Shipping

notice

Carrier

Horizontal View OE/S

4a. Sales order department acknowledges order to the customer


Horizontal view oe s9 l.jpg

VP marketing

VP finance

VP logistics

2. Credit

request

Customer

1. Customer

order

3. Credit

approval

Credit Department

Sales Order department

4b. Picking

ticket

Warehouse

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4c. Sales

order

5. Completed

Picking ticket

4d. Sales

order

6b. Shipping

notice

B/AR/CR

Shipping department

6c. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

General ledger

6a. Shipping

notice

Carrier

Horizontal View OE/S

4b&c. Sales order department notifies shipping department of sales order


Horizontal view oe s10 l.jpg

VP marketing

VP finance

VP logistics

2. Credit

request

Customer

1. Customer

order

3. Credit

approval

Credit Department

Sales Order department

4b. Picking

ticket

Warehouse

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4c. Sales

order

5. Completed

Picking ticket

4d. Sales

order

6b. Shipping

notice

B/AR/CR

Shipping department

6c. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

General ledger

6a. Shipping

notice

Carrier

Horizontal View OE/S

4c & d. Sales order department notifies warehouse and B/AR/CR process of shipment


Horizontal view oe s11 l.jpg

VP marketing

VP finance

VP logistics

2. Credit

request

Customer

1. Customer

order

3. Credit

approval

Credit Department

Sales Order department

4b. Picking

ticket

Warehouse

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4c. Sales

order

5. Completed

Picking ticket

4d. Sales

order

6b. Shipping

notice

B/AR/CR

Shipping department

6c. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

General ledger

6a. Shipping

notice

Carrier

Horizontal View OE/S

5. Warehouse sends completed picking ticket to shipping


Horizontal view oe s12 l.jpg

VP marketing

VP finance

VP logistics

2. Credit

request

Customer

1. Customer

order

3. Credit

approval

Credit Department

Sales Order department

4b. Picking

ticket

Warehouse

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4c. Sales

order

5. Completed

Picking ticket

4d. Sales

order

6b. Shipping

notice

B/AR/CR

Shipping department

6c. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

General ledger

6a. Shipping

notice

Carrier

Horizontal View OE/S

6d. Shipping department informs sales order department of shipment


Horizontal view oe s13 l.jpg

VP marketing

VP finance

VP logistics

2. Credit

request

Customer

1. Customer

order

3. Credit

approval

Credit Department

Sales Order department

4b. Picking

ticket

Warehouse

4a. Acknow-

ledgement

4c. Sales

order

5. Completed

Picking ticket

4d. Sales

order

6b. Shipping

notice

B/AR/CR

Shipping department

6c. Shipping

notice

6d. Shipping

notice

General ledger

6a. Shipping

notice

Carrier

Horizontal View OE/S

6a,b&c. Shipping department informs carrier, B/AR/CR process, and general ledger process of shipment



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MANAGING THE OE/S PROCESS:SATISFYING CUSTOMER NEEDS

  • Most important asset is not capitalized on the balance sheet, a happy customer

  • Global competition has increased significantly

  • What does this situation mean for the OE/S process?

    • This has expanded the type and amount of data collected by the OE/S process regarding a firm’s customer population

    • Many organizations have developed a separate marketing information system to assist decision making in the marketing function

    • With enterprise systems, customer relationship management (CRM) systems often share the same underlying database

    • Mass marketing or segmented marketing is being replaced with marketing to smaller portions of the customer population

    • The ultimate aim is to concentrate on the individual consumer


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Questions that need answers

  • Where is sales volume (quantity and dollars) concentrated?

  • Who are the specific major customers (by sales and by profitability), both present and potential?

  • What opportunities exist to sell after-sales services?

  • What types of advertising and promotions have the greatest influence on customers?


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Technologies to Support OE/S Process

  • Data Warehouse

    • a collection of computerized data that is organized to most optimally support reporting and analysis activity (Wikipedia)

      • Subject Oriented

      • Time Variant

      • Non-Volatile

      • Integrated

    • Evolution of Data Warehouses

      • Offline Copies of existing database(s)

      • Offline Data Warehouse

        • Updated from ‘live’ database periodically

      • Real Time Data Warehouse

        • Updated as Events are processed

      • Integrated Data Warehouse

        • Generates transactions back to ‘live’ database


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Technologies to Support OE/S Process

  • Data Mart

    • Specialized version of a Data Warehouse

    • predicated on a specific, predefined need for a certain grouping and configuration of select data (Wikipedia)


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Technologies to Support OE/S Process

  • Data Mining

    • the process of automatically searching large volumes of data for patterns, delivering new information

    • previously unknown to the company.


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Using Data Mining to Support Marketing

  • Intended to allow the use of sophisticated statistical and other analytical software to help an organization’s members develop insights about customers, processes, and markets

    • Data warehousing and data mining have become common application to increase the effectiveness of pricing and promotions


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Global e-Business

  • E-Business systems are broken into two categories: buy-side and sell-side

    • Buy Side

      • Buy-side systems use the Internet to automate and manage corporate vendors and purchases.

      • The predominant technology in this area is electronic data interchange (EDI)

    • Sell Side

      • Sell-side systems are designed to allow a company to market, sell, deliver, and service goods and services to customers throughout the world via the Internet

      • Sell-side applications can handle both B2B and B2C business transactions

      • One facet of sell-side systems is known as customer relationship management (CRM) applications


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CRM Systems

  • Better customer service means happier customers and yields greater sales—particularly repeat sales

  • CRM systems are designed to manage all the data related to customers, such as marketing, field service, and contact management data

    • CRM has become the focus of ERP vendors who realize the need to tap into this growing market and to integrate CRM data with the other data already residing within the ERP system’s database

  • At the same time, the software supports the organizing and retrieving of information on historical sales activities and promotions planning

    • This facilitates the matching of sales promotions with customers’ buying trends

    • The buzzword in CRM is “segmentation,” the grouping of customers into categories based on key characteristics

  • Customer/Sales data is being stored in terabyte-sized databases and analyzed


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The OE/S Process – Context Diagram


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OE/SLevel ZeroDFD


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OE/S Level 1DFD: Validate Sales Order


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Level 1 DFD: Validate Sales Order

  • 1.1 - Verify inventory available

    • Triggered by a customer order

    • Inquiry of inventory master file to check inventory availability

    • “Available to promise (ATP)” can be complicated

    • Facilitated by an enterprise system that can look worldwide within the organization and up and down the supply chain to determine when goods can be delivered

    • If a sufficient level of inventory is on hand to satisfy the request, the order is forwarded for further processing, as depicted by the data flow “Inventory available order”

    • If a customer orders goods that are not in stock, process 1.1 runs a special back order routine

    • Record demographic and other info in marketing data store


Level 1 dfd validate sales order27 l.jpg
Level 1 DFD: Validate Sales Order

  • 1.2 - Check credit

    • Process 1.2 establishes the customer’s existence and then approves credit

    • With an enterprise system one record should exist for each customer, wherever he or she is located and from whatever parts of the organization he or she makes purchases

    • This allows an organization to readily determine the amount of credit available to that customer worldwide

    • Without this central database a customer could incur multiple receivable balances that in total exceed an amount the selling organization considers desirable


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Level 1 DFD: Validate Sales Order

  • 1.3 Complete sales order

    • process 1.3 receives an accepted order from process 1.2.

    • It then completes the order by adding price information, from the inventory master data

    • As noted earlier, this could be a complicated calculation based on who and where the customer is and if the item is to be discounted

    • Then, process 1.3 performs the following activities simultaneously:

      • Updates the inventory master data to allocate the quantity ordered to the sales order

      • Updates the sales order master data to indicate that a completed sales order has been created

      • Disseminates the sales order


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Level 1 DFD-Dissemination data flows: Validate Sales Order

  • A picking ticket authorizes the warehouse to “pick” the goods from the shelf and send them to shipping

    • The picking ticket identifies the goods to be picked and usually indicates the warehouse location

  • A customer acknowledgment is sent to the customer to notify him or her of the order’s acceptance and the expected shipment date

  • A sales order notification is sent to the billing department to notify them of a pending shipment

    • this could take many forms including a message received on a computer screen or a report of pending shipments




Dissemination of data flows execute shipping notice l.jpg
Dissemination of Data Flows:Execute Shipping Notice

  • Shipping’s billing notification (to notify billing to begin the billing process)

  • Bill of lading, a contract between the shipper and the carrier in which the carrier agrees to transport the goods to the shipper’s customer

    • The carrier’s signature on the bill of lading, and/or the customer’s signature on some other form of receipt, substantiates the shipment

  • A packing slip is attached to the outside of a package and identifies the customer and the contents of the package

  • General ledger inventory sales update to notify the general ledger process that inventory has been sold and the cost of goods sold has increased


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OE/S Data Stores

  • Marketing data

  • Customer master data

  • Sales order master data

  • AR master data

  • Inventory master data


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Entity-Relationship

Diagram for OE/S Process


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Automated Data Entry

  • Bar code readers are devices that use light reflection to read differences in bar code patterns in order to identify a labeled item

  • Optical character recognition is similar to bar code readers work, but recognize a pattern of handwritten or printed characters

  • Scanners are input devices that capture printed images or documents and convert them into electronic digital signals that can be stored on computer media


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Digital Image Processing

  • Digital image processing systems are computer-based systems for capture, storage, retrieval, and presentation of images of real or simulated objects

  • The following briefly describes the major steps in a typical digital image processing system

    • In the input stage, scanners are generally used to capture images or documents

    • A clerk uses a PC or workstation to retrieve the image of a source document

      • In addition to screen output, images also may be printed

    • After a document has been input, additional processing may take place.

      • Additional data related to the document might be added, or someone might act on data contained in, or associated with, the document

      • Retrieval and processing capabilities may be incorporated into existing applications

      • Linking these images in an enterprise system makes accessibility greater and easier and information can readily be distributed throughout the organization to where it is needed



The oe s process flowchart38 l.jpg
The OE/S Process Flowchart

  • Figure 10.11 presents a systems flowchart of the model

  • Take some time now to examine the flowchart

  • We start with customer calls received in the customer service center

  • Customer service representatives may perform a number of services for a customer including:

    • Checking the availability of inventory

    • Determining the status of open orders

    • Initiating sales

    • Confirming orders


The oe s process flowchart39 l.jpg
The OE/S Process Flowchart

  • Let’s assume that the customer sales representative enters a sales order and sees a screen much like the SAP screen in Figure 10.6

  • First, the system prompts the CSR to enter the customer number

  • If the CSR enters a customer number for which the system has no record, the system rejects the order, and the recording of the event is terminated


The oe s process flowchart40 l.jpg
The OE/S Process Flowchart

  • Assuming the CSR enters a valid customer number, the system automatically retrieves certain standing data from the customer master data such as:

    • customer name

    • address

    • credit terms, from the

  • Next, the CSR enters the other data in the sales order, guided by the cursor moving to each new position in the preformatted screen


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The OE/S Process Flowchart

  • When the CSR enters data for each item ordered, the system automatically displays the description and price

  • Finally, the CSR enters the quantity ordered

    • If the total amount of the current order, any open orders, and the outstanding receivable balance exceeds the customer’s credit limit, the operator is warned of this fact, the order is suspended, and credit rejection procedures are initiated

    • If the total amount falls within the customer’s credit range, the processing continues

  • Should the balance shown on the inventory data be less than the quantity ordered, back order procedures are initiated


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The OE/S Process Flowchart

  • Once the customer service representative has finished entering the order data, the computer updates the sales order and inventory master data, and gives the CSR a sales order number that is then relayed to the customer

  • Simultaneously, a picking ticket, containing a bar code of the sales order number, is printed in the warehouse


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The OE/S Process Flowchart

  • As each item is picked, warehouse personnel insert the picked quantities on the picking ticket

  • When all the goods have been picked, they compare the goods to the picking ticket, initial the ticket, and then move the goods and the completed picking ticket to the shipping department


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The OE/S Process Flowchart

  • Shipping personnel scan the bar code on the picking ticket to bring the sales order up on their computer screen

  • After they confirm that this is the correct order and that the quantities are correct, they select the option to record the shipment

  • This action causes the computer to update the sales order, inventory, and general ledger master data to reflect the shipment and to print a packing slip and bill of lading

  • The goods are packed, with the packing slip inside, the shipping label (bill of lading) is attached to the box, and the box is given to the carrier for delivery

  • The completed picking ticket is discarded


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The OE/S Process Flowchart

  • Error routines would be initiated if:

    • the customer record did not exist

    • the customer’s credit limit was not sufficient

    • the goods were not available in the correct quantity

    • or the goods to be shipped did not match the picking ticket and the sales order





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