Lca of imported agricultural products impacts due to deforestation and burning of residues
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LCA of imported agricultural products – impacts due to deforestation and burning of residues. Dr. Niels Jungbluth ESU-services Ltd., Uster, Switzerland. International Life Cycle Assessment and Management 2007 Portland, Oregon - October 2 to 4. Topics.

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Lca of imported agricultural products impacts due to deforestation and burning of residues l.jpg

LCA of imported agricultural products – impacts due to deforestation and burning of residues

Dr. Niels Jungbluth

ESU-services Ltd., Uster, Switzerland

International Life Cycle Assessment and Management 2007

Portland, Oregon - October 2 to 4


Topics l.jpg
Topics deforestation and burning of residues

  • Goal and scope of the project “Life cycle inventories of bioenergy”

  • Methodology allocation

  • Specific regional problems

    • Soy beans

    • Plant oils

    • Sugar cane

  • Conclusions

www.esu-services.ch


Problem setting for the project lci bioenergy l.jpg
Problem setting for the project deforestation and burning of residues“LCI bioenergy”

  • Diverging results for bioenergy in separate studies

  • ecoinvent data v1.3 cover only a small part of bioenergy chains. No common database

  • Aims to fully cover the of most important bioenergy chains

  • Support for energy policy (fuel tax reductions)

  • Examination for GHG reduction potential

  • Investigation of several environmental aspects of “biofuels” supply chains

www.esu-services.ch


Resources conversion techniques and bioenergy products investigated l.jpg
Resources, conversion techniques and “bioenergy” products investigated

www.esu-services.ch


Goal and scope l.jpg
Goal and Scope products investigated

  • Time frame 2005 or new future technologies

  • Investigation from well to Swiss wheel

  • Products from multi-output processes are investigated with allocation factors that can be varied by the data user

  • All direct co-products are included in the analysis

  • Consistent investigation of energy, food and material products from biomass

  • Clear differentiation of fossil and organic carbon

  • Publication with ecoinvent data v2.0 late 2007 (www.ecoinvent.org)

www.esu-services.ch


Allocation l.jpg
Allocation products investigated

  • Multi-output processes are stored in the database – BEFORE allocation

  • Input- and output-specific allocation factors, i.e.individual allocation factor allowed per pollutant and input

  • Allocation executed after import of dataset into database-> calculation of allocated unit processes-> matrix becomes invertible

  • NO system expansion,NO credits

  • Cut-off applied for outputs without economic value and wastes for recycling

www.esu-services.ch


Allocation example biogas l.jpg
Allocation: Example Biogas products investigated

www.esu-services.ch


Soybean production l.jpg
Soybean production products investigated

www.esu-services.ch


Increase of agricultural area l.jpg
Increase of agricultural area products investigated

This area was cleared by soybean farmers in Novo Progreso.

Brazilian Government figures show that the rate of clearing has increased.

www.esu-services.ch


Annual forest loss in brazilian amazon l.jpg
Annual forest loss in Brazilian Amazon products investigated

nearly 20‘000km2

= 600m2 per second

http://rainforests.mongabay.com/amazon/deforestation_calculations.html

http://sitemaker.umich.edu/section2group3/results_and_discussion

www.esu-services.ch


Clear cutting of primary forests l.jpg
Clear cutting of primary forests products investigated

  • Agricultural area is increased by clear cutting

  • Land transformation leads to CO2 emissions

  • Burning of residues with further emissions

  • Loss of biodiversity

  • CO2 from land transformation accounts for about 90% of Brazil CO2 emissions

  • Particles from residue burning are an important problem in South-East Asia

www.esu-services.ch


Principle of investigation l.jpg
Principle of investigation products investigated

  • What is the increase in agricultural area for the production in the reference year?

  • What is emitted per m2 of clear cut land?

  • Allocation of emissions between wood and stubbed land

  • Stubbed land is the main driver

  • New elementary flow „CO2, land transformation“ as used by IPCC for different possibilities of analysis

www.esu-services.ch


Inventory clear cutting l.jpg
Inventory Clear Cutting products investigated

www.esu-services.ch


Inventory agricultural product l.jpg
Inventory agricultural product products investigated

www.esu-services.ch


Soybean greenhouse gasses l.jpg
Soybean greenhouse gasses products investigated

kg CO2-eq per kg at field

www.esu-services.ch


Soybean ecological scarcity 2006 l.jpg

Fires during clear cutting products investigated

Soybean (ecological scarcity 2006)

www.esu-services.ch

  • Important differences in environmental profile


Plant oil production l.jpg
Plant oil production products investigated

kg CO2-eq per kg oil at plant

www.esu-services.ch


Sugar production of sugar cane l.jpg
Sugar production of sugar cane products investigated

agriculture

Harvest manual/

machinery

Sugar /Ethanol production

www.esu-services.ch


Sugar production l.jpg
Sugar production products investigated

www.esu-services.ch

  • Respiratory effects, inorganic,Eco-indicator 99, (H,A) due to burning of residues


Sugar production20 l.jpg
Sugar production products investigated

www.esu-services.ch

  • Respiratory effects, organic, Eco-indicator 99, (H,A) due to burning of residues


Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions products investigated

  • Products show environmental “Achilles’ tendon” in different areas=> Focus of investigation depends on product analysed

  • “Biofuels” example: - burning of residues- CO2 emissions due to land transformation => acknowledge and model regional differences

  • ecoinvent data provide the necessary information

www.esu-services.ch


Thanks to participating organisations l.jpg
Thanks to participating organisations products investigated

  • Financing:

    • Swiss Federal Offices for Energy (BFE), Agriculture (BLW) and Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL)

    • Erdöl-Vereinigung, Zurich; Alcosuisse, Berne; Entsorgung und Recycling Zürich

  • Experts:

    • Carbotech AG, Basel

    • Chudacoff Oekoscience, Zürich

    • Doka Ökobilanzen

    • ENERS Energy Concept, Lausanne

    • INFRAS, Bern

    • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (ETHZ)

  • ecoinvent manager: Rolf Frischknecht, ecoinvent Centre

  • Project leader: Niels Jungbluth, ESU-services Ltd.

www.esu-services.ch


Ecoinvent l.jpg

A joint initiative of the Swiss ETH research domain and Swiss Federal Offices

ecoinvent

Trust in Transparency!

www.ecoinvent.org


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