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LAOS: Layered WWW AHS Authoring Model and their corresponding Algebraic Operators . Dr. Alexandra Cristea [email protected] http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~acristea/. LAOS. What is LAOS? Concept based adaptation LAOS components Why LAOS? LAOS authoring steps Future directions.

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Laos layered www ahs authoring model and their corresponding algebraic operators l.jpg

LAOS:Layered WWW AHS Authoring Model and their corresponding Algebraic Operators

Dr. Alexandra Cristea

[email protected]

http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~acristea/


Slide2 l.jpg
LAOS

  • What is LAOS?

  • Concept based adaptation

  • LAOS components

  • Why LAOS?

  • LAOS authoring steps

  • Future directions

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


What is laos l.jpg
What is LAOS?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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What is LAOS ?

  • a generalized model for generic adaptive hypermedia authoring

  • based on the AHAM model

  • based on concept maps

  • http://wwwis.win.tue.nl/~alex/HTML/Minerva/papers/WWW03-cristea-mooij.doc

  • http://www.ifets.info/journals/7_4/7.pdf

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Why LAOS?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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General motivation for layer distributed information

  • Flexibility

  • Expressivity (semantics: also meta-data)

  • Reusability

  • Non-redundancy

  • Cooperation

  • Inter-operability

  • Standardization

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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LAOS components

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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LAOS components

  • domain model (DM),

  • goal and constraints model (GM),

  • user model (UM),

  • adaptation model (AM) and

  • presentation model (PM)

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008



Laos motivation in detail l.jpg
LAOS motivation in detail

  • Why domain model (DM) ?

  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?

  • Why user model (UM)?

  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and

  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


Laos motivation in detail11 l.jpg
LAOS motivation in detail

  • Why domain model (DM) ?

    • Because of historical AHS, ITS, AHAM

  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?

  • Why user model (UM)?

  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and

  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


Laos motivation in detail12 l.jpg
LAOS motivation in detail

  • Why domain model (DM) ?

  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?

  • Why user model (UM)?

    • Because of historical ITS, AHS, AHAM

  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and

  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


Laos motivation in detail13 l.jpg
LAOS motivation in detail

  • Why domain model (DM) ?

  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?

  • Why user model (UM)?

  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and

    • Because of AHAM – see also LAG !!

  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


Laos motivation in detail14 l.jpg
LAOS motivation in detail

  • Why domain model (DM) ?

  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?

  • Why user model (UM)?

  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and

  • Why presentation model (PM)?

    • Because of Kuypers, AHAM

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


Laos motivation in detail15 l.jpg
LAOS motivation in detail

  • Why domain model (DM) ?

  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?

    • Because of book metaphor

    • Also because of goal adaptation!! (see adapt to what?)

  • Why user model (UM)?

  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and

  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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GM book metaphor – why?

  • Domain model:

    • equivalent to skip the presentation and just tell the user to read the book.

  • search space too big

  • Not only one purposeful orientation

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


Gm motivation l.jpg
GM motivation

  • intermediate authoring step,

  • goal & constraints related:

  • goals: focused presentation

    • specific end-state

  • constraints: limit search space

    • DM filter

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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DM

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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GM

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Authoring steps in LAOS

  • STEP 1: write domain concepts + concept hierarchy + attributes (contents) + other domain relations

  • STEP 2: add content related adaptive features regarding GM (design alternatives – AND, OR, weights, etc.)

  • STEP 3: add UM related features (simplest way, tables, with attribute-value pairs for user-related entities (AHAM); UM can be represented as a concept map)

  • STEP 4: decide among adaptation strategies, write in adaptation language medium-level adaptation rules or give the complete set of low level rules (such as condition-action (CA) or IF-THEN rules).

  • STEP 5: define format (presentation means-related; define chapters)

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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LAOS components – definitions

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Domain concept model

  • Definition 1. An AHS domain mapDM is determined by the tuple <C,L, Att>,

    • where C: set of concepts,

    • L: set of links,

    • Att a set of DM attributes

  • Definition 2. A domain conceptcDMi. C is defined by <A,C>

    • where A : set of attrs and C : set of sub-concepts.

  • Constraint 1.Amin is the minimal set of (standard) attributes required for each concept to have (AAmin).

    • for sufficient meta-data

    • if Amin = required standard attributes.

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Domain concept model – cont.

  • Definition range 2.1. A domain concept cC is a composite domain concept if c.C.

  • Definition range 2.2. A concept cC is an atomic domain concept if c.C=.

  • Definition 3. A domainlinklL is a tuple <S, E, N, W> with S,E{DMi.ck}i,k (S, E) start and end sets of DM concept instances, respectively; N set of labels of the links; W set of weights of the links.

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Domain concept model – cont.

  • Definition 4. A domain attributeaDMi.C.A is a tuple <type, val>, where

    • type is the name of the DM attribute;

    • val is the value (contents) of the DM attribute.

  • Constraint 2. concept c must be involved at least in one link l. This special relation is called hierarchical link (link to ancestor concept). Exception: root concept.

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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algebraic operators & respective operations over the model

  • constructors

    • create, edit

  • destructors

    • delete

  • visualization or extractors

    • list, view, check

  • compositors

    • repeat

  • Effects

    • restructuring (constructors, destructors and any compositors using at least one operator belonging to the previous categories) or

    • structure neutral (visualization and any compositors applied to visualization alone)

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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operation & operator

Range of operation in DM

Description

Create

&

‘C’

  • Input (atomic): optionally object name (text label) of objects such as for DMx,; father concept for c;ids (numerical) of (S, E) and labels, weights for l, ai[h] (with h>Amin)

  • ·Input (set): as above for sets of objects{cj}+,{lj}+,{ai[h]}+ (with 1hAmin)

  • ·Output space: DM, C, L, A

  • ·Output: DMx , {cj}*,{lj}*,{ai[h].type}*

·creates one object such as a concept map, concept, link, a non-standard attribute

·creates sets of objects such as set of new hierarchical child nodes and/ or links connected to the same parent or a full standard attributes set

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

[1] We assume here that val is defined analogously for CM, c, l.


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Edit

&

‘E’

·Input: object ids or expression

·Output: { {DMx, c, l, ai[h]}.type}*

edits the object value

Delete

&

‘D’

·Input: as the two above together, condition or expression

·Outputspace: DM, C, L, A

deletes an object (set) from the corresponding structure or empties the contents

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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List

&

‘L’

·Input: Any sets from above, optional condition or expression

·Output: interface object

lists the objects of the set(s)

View

&

‘V’

·Input: (set of) object id-s and mode (e.g., Graph/ Text)

·Output: interface object

gives alternative views of the results to the author

Check

&

‘Ck’

·Input: (set of) object id-s from DM, C, L, A, checking goal, (and implicitly their value domains)

·Output: interface object

checks the checking goal for the selected object and informs about value domain trespasses

Repeat

&

‘R’

·Input: Any of above, number of times or other stopping condition

·Output space: same as operation performed

Repeats any of the operations above

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


Goal and constraints model l.jpg
Goal and constraints model

  • Definition 5. A constraint conceptgGMi.G in GM is defined by the tuple <GA, G, DMj.c.a> GA is a set of attributes; G a set of sub-concepts; DMj.cC is the ancestor DM concept and DMj.c.aA is an attribute of that concept;GMiisthe name of the GM map instance to whom it belongs.

  • Definition 6. A constraint linkglL is a tuple <S, E, N, W> with S,E{DMi.ck}i,k (S, E) start and end sets of GM concept instances, respectively; N set of labels of the links; W set of weights of the links.

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Atomic operation & operators

Range of operation in GM

Description

Create

&

‘C’

·Input: original concept id in GM and attribute id; optionally object name (text label) of objects such as for GMx, father concept for c;ids (numeric) of (S, E); labels, weightsfor l

·Input: as above for sets of objects{cj}+,{lj}+,{ai[h].var}+ (1h2)

·Output space: GM, G, L, A

·Output: GMx, {cj}*,{lj}*, {ai[h].type}*

·creates object e.g. GM map, concept, link, a non-standard attribute

·creates sets of objects e.g., set of new hierarchical child nodes +/- links to the same parent or a full standard attributes set

Edit

&

‘E’

·Input: object ids or expression

·Output: { {GMx, c, l, ai[h]}.val}*

edits the object value

Delete

&

‘D’

·Input: as the two above together, condition or expression

·Outputspace: GM, G, L, A

deletes an object (set) from the corresponding structure or empties the contents

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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List

&

‘L’

·Input: Any sets from above, optional condition or expression

·Output: interface object

lists the objects of the set(s)

View

&

‘V’

·Input: (set of) object id-s and mode (e.g., Graph/ Text)

·Output: interface object

gives alternative views of the results to the author

Check

&

‘Ck’

·Input: (set of) object id-s from GM, G, L, Ac , checking goal, (and implicitly their value domains)

·Output: interface object

checks the checking goal for the selected object and informs about value domain trespasses

Repeat

&

‘R’

·Input: Any of above, number of times or other stopping condition

·Output space: same as operation performed

Repeats any of the operations above

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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What can LAOS do for you?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Example 1: flexibility indexbetween concept C1 and rest of concepts in DMfor automatic semantic linking in the DM or GM

where C = card(DM)

and Amin = card(Amin)

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Example 2: flexibility degree for selecting attributes from DM concept C1 for GM, considering the order

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Future developments LAOS

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Future developments LAOS

  • Operators for each layer (partially done)

  • Automatic transformations between layers for authoring simplification (partially done)

  • Automatic concept linking (partially done)

  • Verification work of the different layers

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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LAOS summary

  • a five level AHS authoring model with a clear cut separation of the processing levels:

  • 1. the domain model (DM),

  • 2. the goal and constraint model (GM),

  • 3. the user model (UM),

  • 4. the adaptation model (AM) - more LAG following

  • 5. the presentation model (PM).

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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Any questions?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008


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