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LAOS: Layered WWW AHS Authoring Model and their corresponding Algebraic Operators . Dr. Alexandra Cristea [email protected] http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~acristea/. LAOS. What is LAOS? Concept based adaptation LAOS components Why LAOS? LAOS authoring steps Future directions.

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laos layered www ahs authoring model and their corresponding algebraic operators

LAOS:Layered WWW AHS Authoring Model and their corresponding Algebraic Operators

Dr. Alexandra Cristea

[email protected]

http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~acristea/

slide2
LAOS
  • What is LAOS?
  • Concept based adaptation
  • LAOS components
  • Why LAOS?
  • LAOS authoring steps
  • Future directions

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

what is laos
What is LAOS?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

what is laos4
What is LAOS ?
  • a generalized model for generic adaptive hypermedia authoring
  • based on the AHAM model
  • based on concept maps
  • http://wwwis.win.tue.nl/~alex/HTML/Minerva/papers/WWW03-cristea-mooij.doc
  • http://www.ifets.info/journals/7_4/7.pdf

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

why laos
Why LAOS?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

general motivation for layer distributed information
General motivation for layer distributed information
  • Flexibility
  • Expressivity (semantics: also meta-data)
  • Reusability
  • Non-redundancy
  • Cooperation
  • Inter-operability
  • Standardization

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos components
LAOS components

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos components8
LAOS components
  • domain model (DM),
  • goal and constraints model (GM),
  • user model (UM),
  • adaptation model (AM) and
  • presentation model (PM)

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos motivation in detail
LAOS motivation in detail
  • Why domain model (DM) ?
  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?
  • Why user model (UM)?
  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and
  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos motivation in detail11
LAOS motivation in detail
  • Why domain model (DM) ?
    • Because of historical AHS, ITS, AHAM
  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?
  • Why user model (UM)?
  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and
  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos motivation in detail12
LAOS motivation in detail
  • Why domain model (DM) ?
  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?
  • Why user model (UM)?
    • Because of historical ITS, AHS, AHAM
  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and
  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos motivation in detail13
LAOS motivation in detail
  • Why domain model (DM) ?
  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?
  • Why user model (UM)?
  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and
    • Because of AHAM – see also LAG !!
  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos motivation in detail14
LAOS motivation in detail
  • Why domain model (DM) ?
  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?
  • Why user model (UM)?
  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and
  • Why presentation model (PM)?
    • Because of Kuypers, AHAM

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos motivation in detail15
LAOS motivation in detail
  • Why domain model (DM) ?
  • Why goal and constraints model (GM)?
    • Because of book metaphor
    • Also because of goal adaptation!! (see adapt to what?)
  • Why user model (UM)?
  • Why adaptation model (AM)? and
  • Why presentation model (PM)?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

gm book metaphor why
GM book metaphor – why?
  • Domain model:
    • equivalent to skip the presentation and just tell the user to read the book.
  • search space too big
  • Not only one purposeful orientation

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

gm motivation
GM motivation
  • intermediate authoring step,
  • goal & constraints related:
  • goals: focused presentation
    • specific end-state
  • constraints: limit search space
    • DM filter

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

slide18
DM

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

slide19
GM

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

authoring steps in laos
Authoring steps in LAOS
  • STEP 1: write domain concepts + concept hierarchy + attributes (contents) + other domain relations
  • STEP 2: add content related adaptive features regarding GM (design alternatives – AND, OR, weights, etc.)
  • STEP 3: add UM related features (simplest way, tables, with attribute-value pairs for user-related entities (AHAM); UM can be represented as a concept map)
  • STEP 4: decide among adaptation strategies, write in adaptation language medium-level adaptation rules or give the complete set of low level rules (such as condition-action (CA) or IF-THEN rules).
  • STEP 5: define format (presentation means-related; define chapters)

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos components definitions
LAOS components – definitions

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

domain concept model
Domain concept model
  • Definition 1. An AHS domain mapDM is determined by the tuple <C,L, Att>,
    • where C: set of concepts,
    • L: set of links,
    • Att a set of DM attributes
  • Definition 2. A domain conceptcDMi. C is defined by <A,C>
    • where A : set of attrs and C : set of sub-concepts.
  • Constraint 1.Amin is the minimal set of (standard) attributes required for each concept to have (AAmin).
    • for sufficient meta-data
    • if Amin = required standard attributes.

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

domain concept model cont
Domain concept model – cont.
  • Definition range 2.1. A domain concept cC is a composite domain concept if c.C.
  • Definition range 2.2. A concept cC is an atomic domain concept if c.C=.
  • Definition 3. A domainlinklL is a tuple <S, E, N, W> with S,E{DMi.ck}i,k (S, E) start and end sets of DM concept instances, respectively; N set of labels of the links; W set of weights of the links.

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

domain concept model cont24
Domain concept model – cont.
  • Definition 4. A domain attributeaDMi.C.A is a tuple <type, val>, where
    • type is the name of the DM attribute;
    • val is the value (contents) of the DM attribute.
  • Constraint 2. concept c must be involved at least in one link l. This special relation is called hierarchical link (link to ancestor concept). Exception: root concept.

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

algebraic operators respective operations over the model
algebraic operators & respective operations over the model
  • constructors
    • create, edit
  • destructors
    • delete
  • visualization or extractors
    • list, view, check
  • compositors
    • repeat
  • Effects
    • restructuring (constructors, destructors and any compositors using at least one operator belonging to the previous categories) or
    • structure neutral (visualization and any compositors applied to visualization alone)

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

slide26

operation & operator

Range of operation in DM

Description

Create

&

‘C’

  • Input (atomic): optionally object name (text label) of objects such as for DMx,; father concept for c;ids (numerical) of (S, E) and labels, weights for l, ai[h] (with h>Amin)
  • ·Input (set): as above for sets of objects{cj}+,{lj}+,{ai[h]}+ (with 1hAmin)
  • ·Output space: DM, C, L, A
  • ·Output: DMx , {cj}*,{lj}*,{ai[h].type}*

·creates one object such as a concept map, concept, link, a non-standard attribute

·creates sets of objects such as set of new hierarchical child nodes and/ or links connected to the same parent or a full standard attributes set

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

[1] We assume here that val is defined analogously for CM, c, l.

slide27

Edit

&

‘E’

·Input: object ids or expression

·Output: { {DMx, c, l, ai[h]}.type}*

edits the object value

Delete

&

‘D’

·Input: as the two above together, condition or expression

·Outputspace: DM, C, L, A

deletes an object (set) from the corresponding structure or empties the contents

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

slide28

List

&

‘L’

·Input: Any sets from above, optional condition or expression

·Output: interface object

lists the objects of the set(s)

View

&

‘V’

·Input: (set of) object id-s and mode (e.g., Graph/ Text)

·Output: interface object

gives alternative views of the results to the author

Check

&

‘Ck’

·Input: (set of) object id-s from DM, C, L, A, checking goal, (and implicitly their value domains)

·Output: interface object

checks the checking goal for the selected object and informs about value domain trespasses

Repeat

&

‘R’

·Input: Any of above, number of times or other stopping condition

·Output space: same as operation performed

Repeats any of the operations above

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

goal and constraints model
Goal and constraints model
  • Definition 5. A constraint conceptgGMi.G in GM is defined by the tuple <GA, G, DMj.c.a> GA is a set of attributes; G a set of sub-concepts; DMj.cC is the ancestor DM concept and DMj.c.aA is an attribute of that concept;GMiisthe name of the GM map instance to whom it belongs.
  • Definition 6. A constraint linkglL is a tuple <S, E, N, W> with S,E{DMi.ck}i,k (S, E) start and end sets of GM concept instances, respectively; N set of labels of the links; W set of weights of the links.

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

slide30

Atomic operation & operators

Range of operation in GM

Description

Create

&

‘C’

·Input: original concept id in GM and attribute id; optionally object name (text label) of objects such as for GMx, father concept for c;ids (numeric) of (S, E); labels, weightsfor l

·Input: as above for sets of objects{cj}+,{lj}+,{ai[h].var}+ (1h2)

·Output space: GM, G, L, A

·Output: GMx, {cj}*,{lj}*, {ai[h].type}*

·creates object e.g. GM map, concept, link, a non-standard attribute

·creates sets of objects e.g., set of new hierarchical child nodes +/- links to the same parent or a full standard attributes set

Edit

&

‘E’

·Input: object ids or expression

·Output: { {GMx, c, l, ai[h]}.val}*

edits the object value

Delete

&

‘D’

·Input: as the two above together, condition or expression

·Outputspace: GM, G, L, A

deletes an object (set) from the corresponding structure or empties the contents

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

slide31

List

&

‘L’

·Input: Any sets from above, optional condition or expression

·Output: interface object

lists the objects of the set(s)

View

&

‘V’

·Input: (set of) object id-s and mode (e.g., Graph/ Text)

·Output: interface object

gives alternative views of the results to the author

Check

&

‘Ck’

·Input: (set of) object id-s from GM, G, L, Ac , checking goal, (and implicitly their value domains)

·Output: interface object

checks the checking goal for the selected object and informs about value domain trespasses

Repeat

&

‘R’

·Input: Any of above, number of times or other stopping condition

·Output space: same as operation performed

Repeats any of the operations above

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

what can laos do for you
What can LAOS do for you?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

slide33
Example 1: flexibility indexbetween concept C1 and rest of concepts in DMfor automatic semantic linking in the DM or GM

where C = card(DM)

and Amin = card(Amin)

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

slide34
Example 2: flexibility degree for selecting attributes from DM concept C1 for GM, considering the order

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

future developments laos
Future developments LAOS

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

future developments laos36
Future developments LAOS
  • Operators for each layer (partially done)
  • Automatic transformations between layers for authoring simplification (partially done)
  • Automatic concept linking (partially done)
  • Verification work of the different layers

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

laos summary
LAOS summary
  • a five level AHS authoring model with a clear cut separation of the processing levels:
  • 1. the domain model (DM),
  • 2. the goal and constraint model (GM),
  • 3. the user model (UM),
  • 4. the adaptation model (AM) - more LAG following
  • 5. the presentation model (PM).

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

slide38
Any questions?

Invited Tutorial, Madrid, Spain April 2008

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