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Island evolution. Evolutionary forces on islands Evolutionary trends on islands. Morphology Behaviour. Development of tameness . Falkland Islands fox, Dusycion australis , Falkland Islands. Blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, Galapagos. Tamar wallaby, Macropus eugenii , Kangaroo Island.

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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Development of tameness


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Falkland Islands fox, Dusycion australis, Falkland Islands


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Blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, Galapagos


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Tamar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, Kangaroo Island


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30

20

Average flight

initiation distance

10

0

Kangaroo

Island

New Zealand

Tutanning

Garden

Island


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House mice, Mus musculus, feeding on Tristan albatross,Diomedea dabbenena, Gough Island


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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Development of tameness

Relaxation in territoriality


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House mouse, Mus domesticus, Isle of May and UK mainland



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Resource hypothesis

Defence hypothesis

Competition release

Predation release

Mild climate

Abundant resources

Increased survival of "have-nots"

Increased territorial defence costs

  • Relaxation in territoriality

  • smaller territories

  • increased overlap

  • tolerance towards subordinates

  • reduced aggressiveness

  • abandonment of territorial defence


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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity


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breeding season

instant food availability

clutch size ~

population density

winter

Resource predictability hypothesis

milder climate, reduced seasonality favours a

reduction in clutch size

Energy reallocation hypothesis

predation relaxation, density compensation

select for investment in fewer,higher quality

young

reduced clutch size

higher quality young


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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Dioecy


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Monoecious

Dioecious

Hermaphrodite

male

male

female

female

male

female

Tag alder, Alnus serrulata

Lily, Lilium

Holly, Ilex aquifolium


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Hawaii

worldwide

monoecious

5-6%

monoecious

7.6%

dioecious

6-7%

dioecious

14.7%

hermaphrodite

85%

hermaphrodite

62.4%


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avoiding

inbreeding depression

sex allocation theory

dioecy


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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Dioecy

Loss of flower attractiveness


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Psychopsis papilio, South America

Sun orchid, Thelymitra longifolia, New Zealand


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Bellflower, Campanula punctata, Izu Islands


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Honshu

Bombus diversus

Oshima

Toshima

Niijima

Kozu

Miyake

Bombus ardens

Mikura

0

100 km

Hachijo

Lasioglossum


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30

Honshu

20

Oshima

Niijima

Toshima

Corolla width (mm)

Kozu

Hachijo

Miyake

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Pollinator width (mm)


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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Dioecy

Loss of flower attractiveness

Anemophily


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Rhetinodendron berteroi, Juan Fernandez Islands


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Plocama pendula, Canary Islands


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Windy conditions

allow wind pollination

Inbreeding

avoidance

Anemophily

Lack or paucity

of animal pollinators


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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Dioecy

Loss of flower attractiveness

Anemophily

Unusual pollinators


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88%

Bumble bee, Bombus canariensis, Canary Islands


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Mauritius ornate day gecko, Phelsuma ornata, Ile aux Aigrettes, Mauritius

71%


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80%

Aeonium holochrysum, Canary Islands


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Madeira wall lizard, Teira dugesii, Madeira


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Lilford's wall lizard, Podarcis lilfordi, Balearic Islands


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Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Unusual dispersal agents


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Podarcis lilfordi, Balearic Islands

Podarcis pityusensis, Balearic Islands

Gallotia atlantica, Fuerteventura


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Robust skink, Cyclodina alani, New Zealand


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Aldabra giant tortoise, Dipsochelys dussumierri, Ile aux Aigrettes (Mauritius)


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Ile-aux Aigrettes ebony, Diospyros egrettarum, Ile aux Egrettes, Mauritius


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