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Genocide. What it is, Where it is happening, and How you can STOP it…. The Causes of Genocide. Genocide Defined ….

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Genocide

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Genocide

What it is, Where it is happening, and How you can STOP it…


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The Causes of Genocide


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Genocide Defined…

A form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrators.- By Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonasson

Genocide has to consist of acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. –Genocide Convention


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Genocide Map


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Examples of Genocide…

  • 174 million people killed throughout the world’s history

  • Chiang Kai-Shek =10 million deaths.

  • Lenin and Stalin =6 million citizens and foreigners.


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…Cambodian Genocide

  • Pol Pot rule from 1975-1979

  • Wanted a communist peasant farming society

  • Lead to the death of 25% of the country’s population.


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8 Steps of Genocide

  • Classification

  • Symbolization

  • Dehumanization

  • Organization

  • Polarization

  • Preparation

  • Extermination

  • Denial


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Sociological Aspects…

  • Fall of a government

  • Refugees

  • Destabilization of a region for generations

  • Politics and morals

  • Hobbes: “Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war, and such a war is everyman against every man.”


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…Psychological Aspects

  • Hobbes: “…passions, which are the same in all men,- desire, fear, hope…”

  • Victims of genocide suffer from trauma

  • Lose sense of trust

  • Frustrations

  • Revenge

  • “We” and also “us vs. them”


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The Sudanese Conflict


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Background…

Who: The conflict in Darfur is between two major ethnic groups: the Arab Northerners (Janjaweed militia) and the southern non-Arab Africans

Where:The civil war is taking place in western Sudan, primarily concentrated in Darfur


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…Background

When: The conflict began in February of 2003

Why: Although portrayed by the media as a racial and religious dispute, the war is based on: “competition between farmers and nomadic cattle herders who compete for scarce resources”


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How did this all begin?

Origins of the Conflict:

-Who: (non-Arab) Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa Vs. (Arab) Baggara

-Arabs and Zaghawa are nomadic herdsmen

-The Fur and Masalit peoples are agriculturalists

What does this all mean?


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It Means…

Disputes over access to land and water


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Government Involvement

  • Genocide is motivated by 3 factors:

    -Power

    -Hatred

    -Greed

  • Sudan’s government, being primarily Arab, dislikes Darfur’s “black African” farmers

    “Janjaweed shares the hatred towards Darfur’s farmers and is in favor of exterminating them in order to selfishly gain control of their land.”

  • Reports show that the government is directly involved in supplying Janjaweed Militia with “arms, communications, salaries, and uniforms”-Human Rights Watch


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…at least 14 people die an hour

  • 400,000

  • 2,000,000

  • 70%

  • The average number of people that die a day

  • The percentage of people which humanitarian aid has been able to help

  • The number of people who will die in the coming months because of a lack of food

  • The number of refugees that have fled the country

  • The percentage of murders under the age of 5

  • The number of people who have been murdered since 2003

  • >500

  • 1,000,000

  • 20%


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The Problem Of World Intervention


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US and World Reactions…

The Holocaust

  • Anti-Semitism

  • Depression

  • Lack of involvement until US soil attacked


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…US and World Reactions

The Rwandan Genocide

  • “intertribal violence”-instead of Genocide

  • US ignorance of atrocities

  • UN ignored warnings

  • UN removed troops

  • Somalia conflict fears

  • Lack of US funds and military personnel


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…US and World Reactions

The Sudanese Conflict

  • US declared it GENOCIDE and “worst humanitarian conflict today”

  • World leaders call it “Chaos”

  • UN economic sanctions on oil

  • US administration pushing for NATO involvement

  • China refuses because of personal interests

  • USAID is currently on site in Sudan


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Global Awareness

  • 61% of Americans prefer UN humanitarian aid vs. UN arms

  • 58% of Americans prefer US military involvement to UN military involvement

  • Only 36% of African people are aware of the situation in Sudan


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UN Defined Genocide:

  • The Genocide Conventions defines genocide as any act committed with the idea of destroying in whole or in part a national, ethnic, racial or religious group

  • Killing members of the group

  • Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group


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UN Defined Genocide:

The Genocide Convention, unlike most other human rights treaties, doesn't establish an expert committee, or an organization to monitor its provisions. Instead, it allows any country that is party to the Convention to ask the relevant parts of the UN to take appropriate action (according to the UN Charter) to prevent or stop acts of genocide.


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…UN Peace Keeping

  • Begins in security council

  • Months of debate regarding severity

  • 6-9 months of preparation after approval

  • Gradual deployment problems

  • Military observers, police, humanitarian aid, and election monitors

  • Language Problems

  • 3rd world country troops

  • Recent conflicts can merit use of limited force: Haiti and the DRC

  • No use of force permitted in Sudan

  • Spread of AIDS and trafficking through UN solders

  • Cost Effective compared to US


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What does this mean for Darfur?

  • US declared Genocide on September 9th, 2004

  • UN Commission denies Genocide

  • Fear that if declared genocide, action becomes necessary and required

  • Funds are too limited to act

  • Berndt and Muse: “Public interests can only be identified and articulated only when individuals listen to one another, only when they modulate their own voices so that the voices of others can be heard.”


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What does this mean for Darfur?

Reflection of Rwanda: Kofi Annan

“One of the reasons for our failure in Rwanda was that beforehand we did not face the fact that genocide was a real possibility. And once it started, for too long we could not bring ourselves to recognize it, or call it by its name.

If we are serious about preventing or stopping genocide in future, we must not be held back by legalistic arguments about whether a particular atrocity meets the definition of genocide or not. By the time we are certain, it may often be too late to act. We must recognize the signs of approaching or possible genocide, so that we can act in time to avert it.

Mr. Chairman, such reports leave me with a deep sense of foreboding. Whatever terms it uses to describe the situation, the international community cannot stand idle.”

Berndt and Muse: “Talk that does not foresee action and look forward to consequences is just a game or a pleasant pastime or an intellectual exercise.”


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US Action

In Sudan


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…Sudan Peace Act

On October 21st, 2002, President George W. Bush signed into law the Sudan Peace Act, which under Federal Law, condemned the Sudanese Government for acts of Genocide.


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Sudan Peace Act…

  • The pact authorized U.S. Government to spend $100 million in the years 2003, 2004, and 2005 to assist Sudan

  • Every 6 months the President receives information regarding the “good faith” of the country


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US and The Sudan…

  • If the Sudanese government interferes with peace efforts, the US will seek a UN Security Council resolution for an arms embargo

  • The Secretary of State must report every six months on the steps taken to collect information, including any findings or determinations made by the State Department


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Current US Policy…

  • This act has not created any changes or influences as of now towards the efforts of ceasing the genocide

  • It has provided aid and support to those who have survived


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Sources

  • www.about.com

  • www.wikipedia.com

  • www.itdg.org

  • www.austin.indymedia.org

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcthree/tv/conflicts/sudan.shtml

  • http://www.darfurgenocide.org/learn.php#Campaigns

  • http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/07/19/darfur9096.htm

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Darfur_map.png

  • www.msnbc.com

  • www.worldrevolution.org

  • www.dhushara.com

  • www.herodote.net

  • www.members.fortunecity.com

  • www.survivorsunited.com

  • www.darfurgenocide.org

  • www.democracy-project.com

  • www.lnsart.com

  • www.commondreams.org

  • www.unitedhumanrights.org

  • www.prisonersoverseas.com

  • www.edcnews.se

  • www.smh.com.au

  • www.whitehouse.gov

  • www.bj.org

  • www.valkyriearms.com

  • www.nafsa.org


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Sources cont…

  • http://www.savedarfur.org/action/educate

  • http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=1160&id=2128502005

  • http://www.americanprogressaction.org/site/pp.asp?c=klLWJcP7H&b=195053

  • http://washingtonsolidaritybeta.awardspace.com/

  • http://homepage.mac.com/dougmercado/PhotoAlbum23.html

  • http://discussions.ushmm.org/genocide_prevention/comment_list.php?ProjectTopic__TopicId=27

  • http://www.nrc.no/engindex.htm

  • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.thewe.cc/thewei/%26/images3/darfur/anger_at_pro_government_speech.jpe&imgrefurl=http://www.thewe.cc/contents/more/archive/darfur_sudan.html&h=278&w=370&sz=63&tbnid=9KB4rq_5jRKt5M:&tbnh=88&tbnw=118&hl=en&start=8&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddarfur%2Bgovernment%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DPCTA,PCTA:2006-08,PCTA:en%26sa%3DN

  • Berndt and muse

  • hobbes


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Sources Cont…

  • http://www3.iath.virginia.edu/holocaust/response.html

  • http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/responses.html

  • http://www.globalcontact.idv.tw/Download/PDF/Why_the_United_States_Let_the_Rwandan_Tragedy_Happan.pdf

  • http://service.spiegel.de/cache/international/0,1518,338612,00.html

  • http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec04/sudan_genocide.html

  • http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec04/sudan_7-05.html

  • http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2005-03-01-darfur-edit_x.htm

  • www.worldopinion.com

  • Hentoff, Nat. "The Un Ignores Genocide." Washington Times.The New York Sun (2004).

  • Encyclopedia, Wikipedia The Free. Sudan Peace Act. March 2006 2002. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan_Peace_Act. 4/16/06 2006.

  • portland.indymedia.org/en/2002/09/21593.shtml www.churchill-society-london.org.uk/1944SOND.html www.anglo-boer.co.za/concentrationpics.html http://www.aeronautics.ru/archive/wwii/baltic_nazis/latvia/contact.htmhttp://fp.seattleschools.org/SmartTools/genocide/rwanda/pictures.htmhttp://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3797889292300937848&q=nazis&pl=true Songs Angels and Airwaves- Valkyrie Missile 28 Days Later Soundtrack- The Beginning and Frank’s Death


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GENOCIDE

To find out more about what you can do to STOPgenocide, visit the following websites, or speak with one of the members of the peer teaching group.

www.ourpledge.org

www.ushmm.org/stop-genocide


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