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# EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH. How do you establish causality? what causes something else to occur? Lazarsfeld provided three criteria: 1. Covariation – two are related 2. Time order – cause before outcome 3. Elimination of likely third variables. Establishing causality.

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Presentation Transcript

How do you establish causality?

• what causes something else to occur?

• Lazarsfeld provided three criteria:

• 1. Covariation – two are related

• 2. Time order – cause before outcome

• 3. Elimination of likely third variables

• Surveys allow you to test for covariation.

• Statistical techniques “control” for third variables

• But experiments offer control over timing

• Manipulate the Independent Variable and observe the consequences (the Dependent Variable).

• Select a group of subjects

• Do something to them

• Observe the effects

• Night lights

• The “Mozart effect”

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• CAUSE

• Independent variable

• OUTCOME

• Dependent variable

CAUSE

OUTCOME

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• Independent and Dependent variables

• Experimental and Control groups

• exposed and non-exposed

• Pre-testing and Post-testing

• measure attitudes toward product and sales

• "Blind" to condition

• Hawthorne effect, placebo effects

Selecting subjects

• Randomization

• equal chance of being in control or experimental condition

• random number table, even-odd, etc.

• Matching

• equalizing "important" variables

• age, education, product use, etc.

External validity

• (How generalizable are the findings?)

• artificiality of the situation

• the lab setting, white lab coat, etc.

• sampling issues

• reliance on college students in experiments

Basic

• O- X - O experimental group

• O - . - O control group

Solomon 4-group:

O- X - O experimental group (pretest-posttest)

O - . - O control group (pretest-posttest)

. X - O posttest-only experimental group

. . - O posttest-only experimental group

• attempts to assess sensitization

(from pretesting)

“Factorial” designs

Multiple variables are examined

• Number of factors

• One factor (involvement)

• Two factors (involvement and gender)

• Number of “levels” for each factor

• e.g., 2 by 2 design…

• or 2 (involvement) by 2 (gender) design…

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### The End

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