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Connecting SW-PBIS to the Classroom: Designing Classroom Supports . Patti Hershfeldt, Ed.D. Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Prevention of Youth Violence [email protected] Objective.

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Connecting sw pbis to the classroom designing classroom supports

Connecting SW-PBIS to the Classroom: Designing Classroom Supports

Patti Hershfeldt, Ed.D.

Johns Hopkins University

Bloomberg School of Public Health

Center for Prevention of Youth Violence

[email protected]


Objective
Objective Supports

  • Identify actions for a school-wide team to improve the quality of classroom management throughout their school


Big idea
Big Idea Supports

  • We often assume green zone is in place everywhere

    • But what about the classroom?

    • How is PBIS being used in the classroom to prevent yellow zone behaviors?

    • By fortifying the green zone, we can reduce need for yellow zone


Today s questions
Today’s Questions Supports

  • How important is classroom management?

  • How can teachers ‘grow the green’? How can we identify areas of strengths using the Classroom Management Self Assessment?

  • Classroom behavior support practices blend with school-wide systems

    • As a team, how will you work to make all classrooms effective settings?


  • What the research says about classroom management
    What the Research Says about Classroom Management Supports

    • Linked with positive student outcomes (academic and behavior)

    • Increased risk of preventing more serious problems among at-risk kids

    • Supports all students in the prevention of possible current and future behavior problems.

    • Strong management signals to kids that the class is a safe place to learn.

    • Well managed classrooms are rated as having more positive climates.

    (Aber et al., 1998; Mitchell, Bradshaw & Leaf, 2009)


    What the research says about classroom management1
    What the Research says about Classroom Management Supports

    • Greater student engagement (Morrison, 1979)

    • Friendlier peer interactions and helpful behaviors, more attentive, less aggression (Susman, Husten-Stein & Friedrich-Coffer, 1980).

    • Teachers experience greater efficacy (Woolfolk, 2002)

      • Increased student achievement

      • Creative and flexible instructional delivery

      • Teacher longevity


    In a well managed classroom
    In a Well-Managed Classroom Supports

    • Students are actively involved in their work

    • Students know what is expected of them and are generally successful

    • There is relatively little wasted time, confusion, or disruption

    • The climate of the classroom is work-oriented, but relaxed and pleasant


    In classrooms that were ineffective wehby symons shores 1995
    In Classrooms that were Ineffective Supports Wehby, Symons, & Shores (1995)

    • Less than half of student’s hand raises or correct academic responses were acknowledged by teachers

    • Less than 2 praise statements per hour

    • Most academic work consisted of independent seatwork

    • Inconsistent distribution of teacher attention

    • Compliance to a command generally resulted in the delivery of another command


    5 key features of classroom management
    5 Key Features of Classroom Management Supports

    • Review each feature

    • Consider a system for taking this information to the whole faculty

    • Build a “measure” of school-wide classroom management

      • Use this measure for action planning and continuous improvement


    Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management Supports

    1. Maximize structure in your classroom.

    2. Establish, teach, prompt, monitor, and evaluate a small number of positively stated expectations.

    3. Maximize academic engaged time

    4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior.

    5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior.

    (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008)


    1 maximize structure
    1. Maximize Structure Supports

    • Develop Predictable Routines

      • Teacher routines

      • Student routines

    • Design an environment that..

      • elicits appropriate behavior

      • minimizes crowding and distraction


    Design a functional physical layout for the classroom
    Design a Functional Physical Layout for the Classroom Supports

    • Different areas of the classroom designed for different purposes

    • Traffic Patterns

    • Visual access

      • Teacher access to students at all times

      • Student access to instruction

    • Density

    • Teacher desk


    Questions for planning physical space
    Questions for Planning Physical Space Supports

    • How many students will you have in the room at one time?

    • How should your pupil’s seats be grouped?

    • What kinds of activities will be taking place in your classroom?

    • Do any students need to be isolated? If so, is it for certain activities or for most of the day?

    • How is movement in the classroom to be regulated?

    • What can you do to create a sense of well-being and safety for your students in your classroom?


    2 establish teach prompt monitor and evaluate a small number of positively stated expectations
    2. Establish, teach, prompt, monitor, and evaluate a small number of positively statedexpectations


    Establish behavioral expectations rules
    Establish number of positively stated Behavioral Expectations/Rules

    • A small number (i.e., 3-5) of positively stated rules. Tell students what we want them to do, rather than telling them what we do not want them to do.

      • Publicly post the rules.

      • Should match SW Expectations


    Teach rules in the context of routines
    Teach number of positively statedrules in the context of routines

    • Teach expectations explicitly.

    • Define rule in operational terms—tell students what the rule looks like within routine.

    • Provide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following.

    • Actively involve students in lesson—game, roleplay, etc. to check for their understanding.

      • Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior in the natural setting.


    Teach the rules
    Teach number of positively stated the rules

    • Define and teach classroom routines

      • How to enter class and begin to work

      • How to predict the schedule for the day

      • What to do if you do not have materials

      • What to do if you need help

      • What to do if you need to go to the bathroom

      • What to do if you are handing in late material

      • What to do if someone is bothering you.

      • Signals for moving through different activities.

        • “Show me you are listening”

      • How to determine if you are doing well in class

  • Establish a signal for obtaining class attention

  • Teach effective transitions.


  • Prompt or remind students of the rules
    Prompt number of positively stated or remind students of the rules

    • Provide students with visual prompts (e.g., posters, illustrations, etc).

      • Use pre-corrections, which include “verbal

      reminders, behavioral rehearsals, or demonstrations of rule-following or socially appropriate behaviors that are presented in or before settings where problem behavior is likely” (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997).


    Monitor students behavior
    Monitor number of positively stated students’ behavior

    • Active supervision

      • Move around

      • Look around

      • Interact with students

        • Reinforce

        • Correct


    Evaluate the effect of instruction
    Evaluate number of positively stated the effect of instruction

    • Collect data

    • Are rules being followed?

    • If not ask..

      • who is making them?

      • where are the errors occurring?

      • what kind of errors are being made?

      • when are they being made?

        • Summarize data (look for patterns)

        • Use data to make decisions


    Establish teach review monitor and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations
    Establish, Teach, Review, Monitor, and Reinforce a small number of positively statedexpectations.


    3 maximize academic engaged time
    3. Maximize academic engaged time number of positively stated

    The Effective Teacher

    Teaches students not a subject or a grade level

    Maximizes academic learning time

    Has students earning their own achievement

    Keeps the students actively engaged in learning

    - Wong, 1998


    Wong the 4 kinds of time at school
    Wong: The 4 kinds of time at school number of positively stated

    • Allocated Time 100%

      • Total time kids are in class

    • Instructional Time 90%

      • Total time you can observe a teacher teaching

    • Engaged Time 75%

      • Total time a student is involved in the learning

    • Academic learning time 35%

      • Time during which a student can demonstrate their learning.


    Maximize academic engaged time instruction influences behavior
    Maximize Academic Engaged Time: Instruction Influences Behavior

    • Pacing

    • Opportunities for student responses

      • Acquisition vs Practice

    • Student feedback from teacher

    • Student choice

    • Sequence activities so preferred activities follow more demanding activities

    • Re-package it


    4 establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
    4. Behavior Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior.

    • Five instances of praise for every correction.

    • Begin each class period with a celebration.

    • Provide multiple paths to success/praise.

      • Group contingencies, personal contingencies, etc


    Increasing positive interactions
    Increasing BehaviorPositive Interactions

    • Use individual conferences to provide specific praise

    • “Search” for reinforceable behaviors

    • Reduce attention to misbehavior and increase time rewarding positive behaviors

    • Praise should be…

      – contingent: occur immediately following

      desired behavior

      – specific: tell learner exactly what they are

      doing correctly and continue to do in the

      future



    5 establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
    5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior.

    • Apply consistently

    • Immediate feedback (when possible)

    • Plan consistent with school-wide plan

      • Define the school-wide “rule” for what is managed in the classroom and what is sent to the office

    • Consequence linked to context

    • Establish predictable consequences

    • Establish individual consequences AND group consequences


    Alpha vs beta commands
    Alpha vs. inappropriate behavior. Beta COMMANDS

    • Alphacommands are short and clear; neutral tone (e.g., “Stay on topic -- Columbus Day”)

    • Beta commands are wordy, vague and often convey a feeling of frustration (e.g., If you won’t listen, you won’t learn a darn thing. You aren’t trying. Pay attention and keep up”)

      (Annemieke Golly)


    Reasonable and logical strategies
    Reasonable and Logical Strategies inappropriate behavior.


    Reasonable and logical strategies1
    Reasonable and Logical Strategies inappropriate behavior.


    Reasonable and logical strategies2
    Reasonable and Logical Strategies inappropriate behavior.


    Reasonable and logical strategies3
    Reasonable and Logical Strategies inappropriate behavior.


    Use data to examine classroom system tools to help
    Use inappropriate behavior. Data to Examine Classroom System: Tools to help


    Resources on classroom management
    Resources on Classroom Management inappropriate behavior.

    • CHAMPs: A proactive and positive approach to classroom management

      • Sprick, R. Garrison, M., & Howard, L. (1998). Pacific Northwest Publishing.

    • Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies and Tolls for Administrators and Coaches

      • Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W.M., & McKale, T. (2006). Pacific Northwest Publishing.


    Classroom check up
    Classroom Check-up inappropriate behavior.

    • A consultation model designed to increase behavior management

      • Conduct observations

      • Assess critical classroom variables

      • Provide feedback

      • Collaboratively design individualized intervention plan

      • Teachers self-monitor/ and are receive ongoing feedback and support

    (Reinke et al., 2008)


    Classroom check up observation form step 1
    Classroom Check-Up Observation Form inappropriate behavior. Step 1

    • Opportunities to respond

    • Correct academic responses

    • Disruptions

    • Ratio of Interactions

      • Specific praise

      • General praise

      • Reprimands


    Classroom check up observation form step 2
    Classroom Check-Up Observation Form inappropriate behavior. Step 2

    For the next 5 minutes, focus on a different student every 5 seconds.

    Record a “+” symbol to indicate on-task or engaged behavior and a “–” symbol to indicate off-task behavior. When each student has been observed, begin the progression again.

    Continue until 5 minutes has elapsed.


    Divide the number of on-task (+) marks by the total number of marks (60).

    Time on task (academic engagement) =__________ percent.

    44 /60 = 73%


    Sample
    Sample of marks (60).


    Ccu feedback form
    CCU Feedback Form of marks (60).

    • Calculate your data/tallies

    • Fill into the feedback columns (by looking at the benchmarks)

    • Choose ONE goal!

    • Watch your students succeed!

    • A few notes

      • These are determined by ideal research conditions

      • Special education considerations


    Classroom management self assessment
    Classroom of marks (60). Management: Self Assessment

    Simonsen, Sugai, Fairbanks, & Briesch, 2006

    http://www.pbis.org/pbis_resource_detail_page.aspx?Type=4&PBIS_ResourceID=174


    Resources
    Resources of marks (60).

    • Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies and Tolls for Administrators and Coaches

      • Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W.M., & McKale, T. (2006). Pacific Northwest Publishing.

    • CHAMPs: A proactive and positive approach to classroom management

      • Sprick, R. Garrison, M., & Howard, L. (1998). Pacific Northwest Publishing.

      • Function Based Thinking: A systematic way of thinking about function and its impact on classroom behavior. Beyond Behavior (in press)

        • Hershfeldt, P.A., Rosenberg, M.S., & Bradshaw, C.P.

    • Good Behavior Game Implementation & Procedures Manual

      • Anderson, C,M. & Rodriguez, B.J.


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