Chief Joseph  Adler Had Something in Common

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Chief Joseph Adler Had Something in Common

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1. Chief Joseph & Adler Had Something in Common Blending Native American Spirituality with Individual Psychology

3. Native American Social Interest “Indians love their friends and kindred, and treat them with kindness.” Cornplanter “They were kind to me, those old men, when I was working hard to learn from them these sacred songs.” Playful Calf “These beads are a road between us. Take hold at one end, I will at the other, and hold fast.” Como, 1793 “I was going around the world with the clouds when God spoke to my thought and told me to…be at peace with all - Cochise

4. Native American Social Interest “The man who sat on the ground in his tipi meditating on life and its meaning, accepting the kinship of all creatures and acknowledging unity with the universe of things, was infusing into his being the true essence of civilization.” Chief Luther Standing Bear “We shall not fail…to nourish your hearts…about the renewal of our amity and the brightening of the chain of Friendship…” Canassatego, 1742

5. Native American Social Interest “We do not want riches. We want peace and love.” Red Cloud, 18l70 “The person who has examined the nature of mind and relationships, who purifies the energy of anger, avarice, envy, and fear and who dedicates actions for the benefits of all beings, such a person walks the Beauty Path.” Dhyani Ywahoo

6. Native American Social Interest “Do not hurt your neighbor, for it is not him you wrong but yourself.” The Shawnee We took an oath not to do any wrong to each other or to scheme against each other.” Geronimo “Even as you desire good treatment, so render it.” Handsome Lake “We must help one another and the Great Spirit will help us both.” Pied Riche “It is my wish and the wishes of my people to live peaceably and quietly with you and yours.” Cornplanter

7. Chief Joseph “I believe much trouble and blood would be saved if we opened our hearts more.” The earth and myself are of one mind.”

8. The Need for Social Connection Deep-seated part of what it means to be human Social & community interest promotes a sense of belongingness and striving for the improvement of community As individuals feel more socially connected, feelings of alienation diminish Individuals who do not feel they belong, feel anxious, worthless and insecure (Adler, 1938,1964)

9. Eisenberger & Lieberman, 2004 Humans experience social pain not only from psychological distance from an individual but also from the perception of psychological distance from a social group or even from the possibility of social distance.

10. Stein (1997) All forms of psychological dysfunction are directly related to disconnection from the feeling of community. Stein outlined that, according to Adler, individuals should possess the following characteristics in order to develop the feeling of community and connection:

11. Attitudinal capacities Feeling at home on the earth A sense of harmony with the universe A deep identification with others Letting go of preoccupation with self Profound feeling of belonging and embeddedness in social evolution

12. Behavioral Capacities Making contact with others Relating to others in a useful way Contributing to the common welfare Ability to cooperate depends on the degree of the feeling of community

13. Emotional Capacities Empathy for others (to see with their eyes, to hear with their ears, to feel with their hearts) Feeling connected to others The ability to feel and express acceptance, liking, and love for others

14. N. A. Healing Ceremonies: to “keep oneself in good relations” Individuals strive to honor or heal a connection between the self and the natural environment, or between the self and the spirit world (Garrett, Garrett, & Brotherton, 2001) Relationships are primary: This wisdom provides a way of thinking and behaving which facilitates the connection of the individual to self, others, community, nature, & the great universal spirit

16. This Presentation/Technique Draws from Individual Psychology’s concept of Social Interest Blends with philosophy & activities of the Native American Uses group therapy format in the counseling of students who are suffering from a sense of disconnection from families, schools, peers, selves

17. Harmony: The Native American Tradition All things are connected The harmonious coexistence of everything in our natural environment Harmony can heal alienation Interrelatedness can be used to help students reconnect to society, to themselves & to nature.

18. Tough Kids: Defiant, Resistant, Disrespectful Alienated from society & themselves Alienation displayed in academic & legal difficulties, acting out behavior & emotional disturbance Feel alone & in conflict Dreikurs’ (1968) “the discouraged child” Bronfenbrenner (1968) “To be alienated is to lack a sense of belonging, to feel cut off from family, friends, school or work—the four worlds of childhood.” p 8

19. At-risk Students Experience Deficits in: Four Areas of Environmental Transactions Destructive Relationships: rejected, unclaimed child, hungry for love but unable to trust, expecting to be hurt again Climates of Futility: insecure, crippled by feelings of inadequacy & fear of failure Learned Irresponsibility: sense of powerlessness masked by indifference, defiance, rebellious behavior Loss of Purpose: self-centered, desperately searching for meaning among confusing values

20. Discouragement of Oppositional Defiant Youth Born out of years of experiencing disrespect & failure, making poor choices, disregarding rights & feelings of others Frustration, anger, & acting out are outcomes of this cycle of poor self-esteem, poor decisions, & yielding to impulse Need for power & control are at base of decisions made as result of feeling unloved and unmet needs

21. If negative behavior is rewarded w/attention & needs satisfaction: At-risk youth become self-centered, seeking to satisfy their own needs, even when their behavior inconveniences or hurts others. “At the extreme, the youth seeks to hurt others to satisfy his or her impulses and narcissistic needs.” Moreau, 2001, p.28

22. The Need for Social Connection is Deeply Rooted The need for social inclusiveness is a deep-seated part of what it means to be human “There’s something about exclusion from others that is perceived as being as harmful to our survival as something that can physically hurt us and our body automatically knows this” Eisenberger, UCLA, 2003

23. Eisenberger, Science (2003) Suggests that the need to be accepted as part of a social group is as important to humans as avoiding other types of pain Humans learn to stick together because rejection causes distress in the pain center of the brain “If it hurts to be separated from other people, then it will prevent us from straying too far from the social group.”

24. Physiological Basis for Social Pain Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) Pain center of brain registers both physical and emotional pain Test subjects playing computer game told they were playing with two other players Others seemed to exclude and reject subject Distress of rejection registered in same part of brain (ACC) that responds to physical pain

25. Neurophysiologic Findings Feeling rejection as acute pain serves as defense for the species. Because children need long period of care, it is very important we stay close to the social group for survival. Hypothesis: social attachment system which makes sure we stay with group piggy backed onto the pain system to aid survival of our species

26. The Study Suggests: Social exclusion of any sort: Abandonment Not being included in social activities Being left out of conversations Discrimination Separation from family or friends Loss of geographical familiarity Causes distress in the ACC

27. Current Scientific Findings Echo the Ancient Wisdom Native American tradition provides thinking & behavior which connects the individual to self, others, community, nature, great universal spirit. All these connections aid the person in surviving physically, emotionally & spiritually in a hostile environment whether ancient or current.

28. Native American Wisdom Provides Structure Nature, pets, & therapeutic relationship can heal the alienation which keeps our youth on the edge of society & prevents them from fully functional/productive life. Sense of connection bridges differences whether based on culture, language, or disability. Reach the “unreachable” to build confidence, self-esteem, empathy. Animals, nature, values of giving, sharing, & cooperation at core of American Indian wisdom can open closed doors in lives of the alienated.

30. The Healing Power of Nature Poets, prophets, current counseling literature: Animal facilitated therapy horticulture therapy, natural environment therapy Humans & nature have always had a natural relationship providing for spiritual and practical needs Native American lore: reverence for special bond between people and nature Mental health may be directly related to this relationship

31. Positive Effects of Contact with Nature Increased self-esteem, self confidence, self-concept, & pride Increased levels of responsibility & development of physical skills Human identity & personal fulfillment Influence on emotional, cognitive, aesthetic, spiritual development

32. Resources Linda Lloyd Nebbe expands Nature Therapy to instrumental therapy, relationship therapy, passive therapy, cognitive therapy & spiritual therapy Tom Carr’s Return to the Land: A Search for Compassion uses animal & nature stories & activities to build compassion toward others & nature to sensitize adolescents to the feelings of others & obtain wisdom applicable to their social, emotional & academic tasks

33. The essence of American Indian spirituality is about “feeling” The feeling of connection is available to all people, although it is experienced in various ways. Garrett & Wilbur ( 1999) described American Indian spirituality through four basic cultural elements: Medicine Relation Harmony Vision

34. Axelson (1999) describes cultural traits Individuals may do as they please, but only if their actions are in harmony with nature American Indian culture values what a person is, rather than his/her possessions Child-rearing emphasizes self-sufficiency, always in harmony with nature. Respect for the elderly is mandatory

35. Personal Qualities Bravery Love Truth Wisdom Humility Loyalty Respect

36. A Unity Model of Group Work Garrett & Crutchfield (1997) Synthesis of contemporary counseling techniques & traditional Native American wisdom Comprehensive approach to developing self-esteem, self-determination, body awareness, & self-concept Useful with all children, regardless of race or ethnicity Emphasizes universal characteristics, such as the need to feel a sense of belonging, mastery, independence & generosity.

37. The Unity Model The whole is always greater than the sum of its parts—the harmonious coexistence of everything in our natural environment Inner dimensions (mind, body, heart) are not separate parts but connected dimensions flowing from one another; whose interrelation may be disrupted by dissonance/discord. Challenge = balancing interrelation as a unified whole. All things have an important /necessary purpose in the greater scheme. Accentuates relationships & their influence on individual growth.

38. The Circle of Life All things are connected, all things have purpose, and all things are worthy of respect and reverence in the circle of life. The circle symbolizes the cyclical nature of our world: daily rising & setting of the sun The Medicine Wheel symbolizes the cyclical nature of the world and the self. The 4 basic directions represent an aspect of life All the Directions together are necessary for a harmonious and functional way of life

39. Cyclical nature of world & self depend on the harmony & balance East = self-esteem: how one feels about self and ability to grow and change South = self determination: ability to use own will to explore & develop potential West = body-awareness: experience of one’s physical self North= self concept: what one thinks about oneself and own potential

40. 4 Directions of the Medicine Wheel (Based on Cherokee Teachings)

41. Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern (1990, 1991) Not meeting the 4 basic needs (belonging, mastery, independence, generosity) causes alienation and acting out. Healing the unmet needs of: Belonging: relationships of trust & intimacy. Mastery: involvement in a setting with opportunities for meaningful achievement. Independence: opportunities to develop positive leadership/self-discipline skills/confidence. Generosity: experiencing the joy of helping others.

42. Circle of Courage Model Cullinan (2002) advocates that schools use practices that create a philosophical direction, which meets these basic needs. Connected students feel more secure, tend to see lessons in problems, survive crises better, less likely to see themselves as victims, access & express feelings more easily; therefore, act out less. The Native American philosophy of interconnectedness, can blend techniques of pet therapy and nature to teach students to connect.

43. The Need for Belonging When met: students are cooperative, friendly, affectionate, respectful, trusting, sympathetic. Techniques: The Talking Circle. “Coming Together” develops respect/acceptance of self & others by bringing people together in respectful manner for sharing/teaching through listening & learning. All have same opportunity to talk with no interruption & respect. One is not expected to talk unless wants to do so. Talk from the mind and from the heart. Confidentiality is emphasized.

44. Being One with All Beings Ties In Easily with Pet Therapy Development of strong emotional bonds, empathy. Opportunity to learn to give & receive affection. Pets substitute for human attachment, reducing loneliness, providing love. Counselor points out we are all one with nature, belong to mother earth, breathe same air that animals breathe & that touches every element of nature.

45. The Need for Mastery Develops through opportunities for developing competence. Native American children are taught: Someone with more competence is not a rival, but a resource; achievement is for personal reasons, not for competition. Techniques: use of art, literature, dance can build creativity & self-esteem. The Medicine Shield = expression of unique gifts.

46. Medicine Shield carries Medicine through Art & Self-expression Demonstrates lessons learned from 4 directions of Medicine Wheel (symbolizes individual journey to find own path). Circle represents the Circle of Life. Center of Circle represents the Eternal Fire. Eagle flying toward East is symbol of strength, endurance, vision – Great symbol of Mastery!

47. Medicine Shield Possibilities Three personally important people Place providing security Two enjoyable activities Three words student would like to have said about him/her Personality traits of which student is proud

48. Pet & Nature Therapy to Build Mastery Caring for animals builds self-esteem & confidence. Positive correlation between presence of a dog in lives of students & their success. Keeping pets in classroom enhances self-esteem. Adolescent self-esteem enhanced by owning pet. Animals motivate learning. Unconditional acceptance provides sense of worth. Gardening produces items to share & pride. Naming local birds is a cognitive skill, which can be shared with others and bring self-esteem.

49. The Need for Independence Native American practice of encouraging children to make decisions, solve problems, be responsible, by adults who model and teach responsible behavior. Produces children who feel respected & powerful. Students who feel strong & independent have no need to disobey in order to demonstrate independence or to bully for respect or power. Counselors teach self-management; recognition & management of emotions, behaviors, thoughts with group activities in which students decide on rules, procedures, activities.

50. Native American Counseling Activities Renaming student with animal/nature name denoting values of strength, courage Harmony Circle – harmony & independence Child selects instrument, follows leader who establishes rhythm, improvises song Cooperation & harmony are discussed as well as importance of each person Medicine Bag-special gift from Mother Earth Decorate; Fill with symbol of special talents.

51. Pet & Nature Therapy to Build Independence Caring for animals: gives sense of control & responsibility. Walking pet on leash; setting limits Students who learn to manage pets can be more assertive with peers; develop self-respect, independence. Student who decides object of nature to bring to session & where to walk outside develops self-management & autonomy.

52. The Need for Generosity Native American youth prove virtue by helping others; Power/purpose is shown by contributing to others’ lives. Counselor provides opportunities to build altruism, empathy, caring. Group exercises: Passing the talking stick. Stick “find” the group in nature walk Students decorate the stick Builds trust, cooperation, closeness Teaches generosity of the Earth.

53. The Gift Exercise Teaches the Generosity of the Earth. Students search outside for “something special”. Students bring object to group; talk about the objects & why special. Reminded to thank Mother Earth for sharing this special gift with them; importance of environmental awareness.

54. Give Away Exercise Honor others for their assistance & achievements. Promote sharing of materials & self. Students make token of appreciation to another group member, then give it away, as reminder that his/her efforts are appreciated.

55. Using Animals and Nature to Promote Generosity Students develop self-esteem when they give of themselves to animals who need care & love. Animals used as vehicle to teach sharing. Sharing flowers/vegetables from own garden gives opportunity for joy of generosity & praise. Animals & nature provide volunteer projects. Pressing flowers for give-away crafts - Sr. Citizens. Generosity of animals/nature emphasized. N.A. belief in stewardship of Nature is emphasized.

56. Native American Counseling Activities Renaming student with animal/nature name denoting values of strength, courage Harmony Circle-harmony & independence Child selects instrument, follows leader who establishes rhythm, improvises song Cooperation & harmony are discussed as well as importance of each person Medicine Bag-special gift from Mother Earth Decorate; Fill with symbol of special talents

57. Group Activities & Techniques The Talking Circle Reminder of interrelationships with one another & world “Coming together”: respect, complete acceptance Talking stick- represents truth & understanding as powerful agents of learning, change, growth. Speaking from the heart and listening to others. Taking a nature walk to let a stick find the group. Each member contributes to the stick Builds trust, cooperation, closeness.

58. Conclusion Need for connection is deeply rooted: Neurologically, emotionally, socially Ancient wisdom of the Native Americans can serve as vehicle for Individual Psychology counselor/educator to promote social interest Harmony & Interrelatedness of the Native American philosophy has potential to assist students to reconnect to society, nature, & themselves.


60. Darline Hunter, Ed. D. Hunter @

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