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Chapter 8 Administering TCP/IP Objectives Understand basic concepts about TCP/IP Configure TCP/IP on Windows Server 2003 Troubleshoot TCP/IP and network connectivity using various utilities Administer Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) in Windows Server 2003 Understanding TCP/IP

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Chapter 8

Administering TCP/IP


  • Understand basic concepts about TCP/IP

  • Configure TCP/IP on Windows Server 2003

  • Troubleshoot TCP/IP and network connectivity using various utilities

  • Administer Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) in Windows Server 2003

Understanding TCP/IP

  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

    • Suite of protocols and utilities used for

      • Network communication

      • Troubleshooting on local networks and the Internet

Understanding TCP/IP (Continued)

  • TCP/IP has become the most popular network protocol in use today, because

    • It is the protocol suite used for Internet-based communications

    • It is an open-standard, vendor-independent protocol

  • In Windows Server 2003 environments, Active Directory depends on TCP/IP and related services to function

Four layers of the TCP/IP model

The TCP/IP Protocol Stack

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

    • Operates at the transport layer

    • Responsible for the reliable transmission of data on a TCP/IP network

    • A connection-based protocol

  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

    • Functions at the transport layer

    • A connectionless protocol

      • Provides no guarantee of packet delivery

    • Provides speed advantages in the form of lower overhead

The TCP/IP Protocol Stack (Continued)

  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

    • Works at the Internet layer

    • Responsible for mapping IP addresses to hardware media access control (MAC) addresses

      • Every Windows Server 2003 computer has an ARP cache that stores both dynamic and static entries

  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

    • Operates at the network layer

    • Used to exchange network status and error information between two hosts

The TCP/IP Protocol Stack (Continued)

  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)

    • Operates at the network layer

    • Used to manage network and host information when a network application requires the use of multicasts to communicate

  • Internet Protocol (IP)

    • Operates at the Internet layer

    • Responsible for addressing and routing packets so that they are delivered to the correct host

    • A connectionless protocol

The TCP/IP Protocol Stack (Continued)

  • IPv4

    • The current version of IP

    • Uses a 32-bit addressing scheme

    • IP addresses are generally represented using dotted-decimal notation

      • For example:

  • A subnet mask

    • Used to determine which portion of an address represents the network and which portion represents a unique host on that network

Installing TCP/IP

  • TCP/IP is installed by default if

    • The network adapter is automatically detected during the installation of Windows Server 2003

  • If TCP/IP is not installed during setup, it can be added afterward

  • Once TCP/IP has been installed, the network administrator can either

    • Manually configure addressing parameters, or

    • Implement dynamic addressing using DHCP

Configuring TCP/IP on Windows Server 2003 Computers

  • All hosts on a TCP/IP network require

    • An IP address

    • A subnet mask

  • Options for configuring IP addresses on workstations and servers

    • Configure each one manually with a static IP address

    • Configure computers to obtain an IP address automatically

      • Requires a DHCP server on the network

Configuring Static IP Addresses

  • The decision on whether to use a static or dynamic IP-addressing method is often a function of the size of the network

  • For each network card configured to use TCP/IP, you must configure

    • An IP address

    • A subnet mask

  • TCP/IP Properties dialog box

    • Can be used to configure an IP address and a subnet mask

Manually Configuring TCP/IP Properties

TCP/IP Options

Configuring IP Addresses Dynamically

  • Dynamic IP addressing

    • Possible if there is a server on the network running DHCP

    • Advantages

      • Can eliminate some administrative problems associated with configuring static IP addresses, such as

        • The chance of human error

        • IP address duplication

  • A DHCP server is configured with a range of IP addresses that will be assigned to clients on the network

Automatic Private IP Addressing

  • Automatic private IP addressing (APIPA)

    • Allows DHCP-enabled clients to assign themselves an IP address and subnet mask in the event that a DHCP server is unavailable

    • Provides a client with limited functionality on the network

Configuring TCP/IP properties dynamically using DHCP

Troubleshooting TCP/IP and Network Connectivity

  • TCP/IP comes with several command-line utilities that can be used to

    • Test network connectivity to make sure that computers can properly communicate over the network

    • Troubleshoot network connectivity problems

Verifying TCP/IP Configurations

  • ipconfig command

    • Can be used to verify the addressing parameters assigned to a host

    • Several parameters can be used with this command

  • winipcfg command

    • Used by Windows 9x machines to display the TCP/IP configuration settings

    • Very similar to the ipconfig utility used in Windows NT/2000/XP and Windows Server 2003

Ipconfig parameters

Verifying TCP/IP Configurations (Continued)

  • Information displayed using ipconfig or winipcfg can assist in determining whether the computer is using the correct

    • IP address

    • Subnet mask

    • Default gateway configuration

Verifying Network Connectivity

  • Windows Server 2003 provides a variety of TCP/IP utilities to troubleshoot connectivity problems

  • ping command

    • Tests network connectivity with other hosts on the network by sending ICMP packets to a remote computer and then listening for an echo reply from the remote host

Ping parameters

Verifying Network Connectivity (Continued)

  • tracert command

    • Displays all the routers a packet must pass through in the journey to the remote host

    • Helps a network administrator better understand the true nature of a TCP/IP network communication issue

Verifying Network Connectivity (Continued)

  • pathping command

    • Combines the functions of both the ping and tracert commands

    • Sends echo request messages to each router between a source and destination host

    • Once complete, it

      • Computes results based on the packets returned from each router

      • Displays the degree of packet loss at each router

    • Can help a network administrator determine which routers are experiencing network problems or congestion

Pathping parameters

Verifying Network Connectivity (Continued)

  • route command

    • Used to view or modify the contents of a system’s local routing table

Verifying Network Connectivity (Continued)

  • netdiag command

    • Can be used to diagnose and troubleshoot a variety of network connectivity problems

    • Some of the information provided includes

      • A list of installed hotfixes

      • IP address and DNS settings

      • Domain configuration information

Administering DHCP in Windows Server 2003

  • To implement automatic IP addressing for network systems

    • Install a DHCP service on at least one server on the network

  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

    • Used to

      • Centralize the administration of IP addresses and other options

      • Eliminate the administrative overhead of statically assigning the information to each network host

Administering DHCP in Windows Server 2003 (Continued)

  • A DHCP scope

    • A range of IP addresses configured on a DHCP server that can be handed out to network clients

  • When a client is configured to use DHCP, it receives

    • An IP address

    • A subnet mask

    • Any other options that may have been configured for the scope

Administering DHCP in Windows Server 2003 (Continued)

  • A DHCP lease

    • An IP address that is assigned to a client from a DHCP server

  • A DHCP client attempts to lease an IP address in one of the following situations:

    • TCP/IP is installed and started for the first time

    • The client releases its IP address and attempts to renew another one

    • The client attempts to release a specific IP address and is denied

Installing a DHCP Server

  • The DHCP server must be assigned

    • A static IP address

    • A subnet mask

    • A default gateway (if required on the network)

Configuring DHCP Scopes

  • A DHCP scope

    • A range of IP addresses and associated settings that can be handed out to network clients configured to use automatic addressing

    • Configured using the DHCP MMC snap-in

The DHCP MMC snap-in

Configuring DHCP Scopes (Continued)

  • Guidelines for creating a DHCP scope

    • Each DHCP scope should include only unique addresses to avoid duplicate IP addresses being handed out on the network

    • Any IP addresses that have been statically assigned to clients should be excluded from a scope to avoid duplication

    • DHCP servers can be configured with multiple scopes to assign IP addresses to hosts on different subnets

Configuring DHCP Scopes (Continued)

  • Scope options

    • Examples: default gateway, DNS server addresses

    • Must be configured before activating the scope

  • Client reservation

    • Reserves an IP address within the scope for a particular client so it is always reassigned the same address

Configuring DHCP Scopes (Continued)

  • Superscope

    • Grouping of scopes created for multiple subnets on a physical network

    • Usually created to make the administration of multiple scopes easier

Configuring DHCP Scopes (Continued)

  • Multicasting

    • Sending a message to a group of clients, but not all clients, using a single destination address

    • Uses a special range of IP addresses known as the Class D address range

    • DHCP servers in Windows Server 2003 can assign multicast addresses to clients as well as traditional unicast addresses

Authorizing a DHCP Server

  • Authorizing a DHCP server in Active Directory

    • The last step in installing a DHCP server

    • Designed to increase security and stability on a network

      • Only those Windows Server 2003 and Windows 2000 DHCP servers that have been authorized by an administrator are permitted to lease IP addresses

Using DHCP Options

  • Besides an IP address and a subnet mask, a range of DHCP options can be assigned to clients

Using DHCP Options (Continued)

  • Scope options can be configured at three levels

    • Server level

      • Server options apply to all scopes configured on the DHCP server

    • Scope level

      • Scope options only apply to a specific scope and the clients that lease an IP address from that scope

    • Client level

      • Client options apply to the specified client reservation

Configuring DHCP in a Routed Network

  • Options for implemented DHCP in a routed network

    • Install and configure a DHCP server on each subnet

    • Configure network routers to forward DHCP broadcast traffic

Configuring DHCP in a Routed Network (Continued)

  • Configure a DHCP relay agent on each of the subnets

    • The DHCP relay agent included with Windows Server 2003

      • Relays DHCP broadcast messages between DHCP clients and DHCP servers across a routed network

      • Configured using the Routing and Remote Access tool

Routing and Remote Access console

DHCP and DNS Integration

  • Dynamic DNS (DDNS)

    • Allows name servers and clients to automatically update the DNS database

  • Options for DNS registration

    • Dynamically update DNS A and PTR records only if requested by the DHCP clients

      • Selected by default

    • Always dynamically update DNS A and PTR records

    • Discard A and PTR records when lease is deleted

    • Dynamically update DNS A and PTR records for DHCP clients that do not request updates

DHCP and DNS integration properties

Maintaining DHCP Services

  • Ways to monitor DHCP servers

    • Periodically look at the Event Viewer system log for any DHCP-related events

    • Use DHCP audit logging

      • Enabled by default in the DHCP MMC snap-in

      • Forces the DHCP server to place detailed event logs in the DHCP database directory

DHCP service activity log

Summary (Continued)

  • TCP/IP consists of a suite of protocols that can be used to configure, manage, and troubleshoot network connectivity

    • The protocols include TCP, UDP, ARP, IP

  • All hosts on a TCP/IP network require an IP address and a subnet mask

  • A default gateway is needed to communicate outside of the local subnet

  • IP addresses can be assigned to a host

    • Statically

    • Dynamically by using a DHCP server

Summary (Continued)

  • Several utilities, such as ipconfig and ping, can be used to verify and troubleshoot TCP/IP

  • Once the DHCP service is installed, you must

    • Create and activate a unique scope

    • Authorize the DHCP server in Active Directory

  • You can also add various scope options, such as the IP address of the default gateway

Summary (Continued)

  • Windows 2000 and XP DHCP clients automatically update resource records with the DNS server

  • The DHCP server can be configured to perform all updates and perform updates on behalf of legacy clients

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