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### Chapter 4 Register Transfer and Microoperations

Dr. Bernard Chen Ph.D.

University of Central Arkansas

Spring 2010

Outline

- Microoperations
- Arithmetic microoperation
- Logic microoperation
- Shift microoperation

s0

s1

s2

Bus

Memory Unit

4096x16

7

Address

WRITE

READ

1

AR

CLR

LD

INR

2

PC

CLR

LD

INR

3

DR

LD

CLR

INR

E

Adder

& Logic

4

AC

LD

CLR

INR

INPR

5

IR

LD

TR

6

INR

CLR

LD

OUTR

Clock

LD

16-bit common bus

Computer System Architecture, Mano, Copyright (C) 1993 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Arithmetic Microoperations

- A Microoperation is an elementary operation performed with the data stored in registers.
- Usually, it consist of the following 4 categories:
- Register transfer: transfer data from one
- register to another
- Arithmetic microoperation
- Logic microoperation
- Shift microoperation

Symbolic designation Description

R3 ← R1 + R2 Contents of R1 plus R2 transferred to R3 R3 ← R1 – R2 Contents of R1 minus R2 transferred to R3 R2 ← R2 Complement the contents of R2 (1’s complement) R2 ← R2 + 1 2’s Complement the contents of R2 (negate) R3 ← R1 + R2 + 1 R1 plus the 2’s complement of R2 (subtract) R1 ← R1 + 1 Increment the contents of R1 by one R1 ← R1 – 1 Decrement the contents of R1 by one

Arithmetic Microoperations- Multiplication and division are not basic arithmetic operations
- Multiplication : R0 = R1 * R2
- Division : R0 = R1 / R2

Arithmetic Microoperations

- A single circuit does both arithmetic addition and subtraction depending on control signals.
- • Arithmetic addition:
- R3 R1 + R2 (Here + is not logical OR. It denotes addition)

BINARY ADDER

- Binary adder is constructed with full-adder circuits connected in cascade.

•It has 3 input and 2 output

To implement an arithmetic adder for multiple-bit inputs, we need to treat the carry out from the lower bit as a third input ( it becomes carry in for the current bit) in addition to the two input bits at the current bit position.

X1

Y1

Z1

S 1 C1

X0

Y0

Z0

S0 C0

+

y

z

c

s

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

Full- Adder

It adds 3-bits, it has 3-inputs and 2-outputs

We will use x, y and z for inputs and s for sum and c for carry are the two outputs.

The truth table

Full Adder

Putting them together we get:

S= x y z

C= z (x y) + xy

The logic diagram for the full adder

BINARY ADDER

- Binary adder is constructed with full-adder circuits connected in cascade.

Arithmetic Microoperations

- Arithmetic subtraction:
- R3 R1 + R2’ + 1
- where R2 is the 1’s complement of R2.
- Adding 1 to the one’s complement is equivalent to taking the 2’s complement of R2 and adding it to R1.

BINARY ADDER-SUBTRACTOR

• The addition and subtraction operations cane be combined into one common circuit by including an exclusive-OR gate with each full-adder.

XOR

M b

0 0 0

0 1 1

1 0 1

1 1 0

BINARY ADDER-SUBTRACTOR

- • M = 0: Note that B XOR 0 = B. This is exactly the same as the binary adder with carry in C0 = 0.
- M = 1: Note that B XOR 1 = B (flip all B bits). The outputs of the XOR gates are thus the 1’s complement of B.
- M = 1 also provides a carry in 1. The entire operation is: A + B’ + 1.

Outline

- Microoperations
- Arithmetic microoperation
- Logic microoperation
- Shift microoperation

• A variety of logic gates are inserted for each bit of registers. Different bitwise logical operations are selected by select signals.

Example

Extend the previous logic circuit to accommodate XNOR, NAND, NOR, and the complement of the second input.

More Logic Microoperation

X Y F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 11 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 11 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

TABLE 4-5. Truth Table for 16 Functions of Two Variables

Boolean function Microoperation Name

F0 = 0 F ← 0 Clear F1 = xy F ← A∧B AND F2 = xy’ F ← A∧B F3 = x F ← A Transfer A F4 = x’y F ← A∧B F5 = y F ← B Transfer B F6 = x y F ← A B Ex-OR F7 = x+y F ← A∨B OR

Boolean function Microoperation Name

F8 = (x+y)’ F ← A∨B NOR F9 = (x y)’ F ← A B Ex-NOR F10 = y’ F ← B Compl-B F11 = x+y’ F ← A∨B F12 = x’ F ← A Compl-A F13 = x’+y F ← A∨B F14 = (xy)’ F ← A∧B NAND F15 = 1 F ← all 1’s set to all 1’s

TABLE 4-6. Sixteen Logic Microoperations

Homework 1

Design a multiplexer to select one of the 16 previous functions.

Outline

- Microoperations
- Arithmetic microoperation
- Logic microoperation
- Shift microoperation

4-6 Shift Microoperations

- Shift Microoperations :
- Shift microoperations are used for serial transfer of data
- Three types of shift microoperation : Logical, Circular, and Arithmetic

Shift Microoperations

Symbolic designation Description

R ← shl R Shift-left register R R ← shr R Shift-right register R R ← cil R Circular shift-left register R R ← cir R Circular shift-right register RR ← ashl R Arithmetic shift-left R R ← ashr R Arithmetic shift-right R

TABLE 4-7. Shift Microoperations

Logical Shift

- A logical shift transfers 0 through the serial input
- The bit transferred to the end position through the serial input is assumed to be 0 during a logical shift (Zero inserted)

Logical Shift Example

1. Logical shift: Transfers 0 through the serial input.

R1 ¬ shl R1 Logical shift-left

R2 ¬ shr R2 Logical shift-right

(Example) Logical shift-left

10100011 01000110

(Example) Logical shift-right

10100011 01010001

Circular Shift

- The circular shift circulates the bits of the register around the two ends without loss of information

Circular Shift Example

Circular shift-left

Circular shift-right

(Example) Circular shift-left

10100011 is shifted to 01000111

(Example) Circular shift-right

10100011 is shifted to 11010001

Arithmetic Shift

- An arithmetic shift shifts a signed binary number to the left or right
- An arithmetic shift-left multiplies a signed binary number by 2
- An arithmetic shift-right divides the number by 2
- In arithmetic shifts the sign bit receives a special treatment

Arithmetic Shift Right

- Arithmetic right-shift: Rn-1 remains unchanged;
- Rn-2 receives Rn-1, Rn-3 receives Rn-2, so on.
- For a negative number, 1 is shifted from the sign bit to the right. A negative number is represented by the 2’s complement. The sign bit remained unchanged.

Arithmetic Shift Right

- Arithmetic Shift Right :
- Example 1

0100 (4)

0010 (2)

- Example 2

1010 (-6)

1101 (-3)

Arithmetic Shift Left

The operation is same with Logic shift-left

The only difference is you need to check overflow problem (Check BEFORE the shift)

Carry out

Sign bit

LSB

LSB

Rn-1

Rn-2

0 insert

Vs=1 : OverflowVs=0 : use sign bit

Arithmetic Shift Left

- Arithmetic Shift Left :
- Example 1

0010 (2)

0100 (4)

- Example 2

1110 (-2)

1100 (-4)

Arithmetic Shift Left

- Arithmetic Shift Left :
- Example 3

0100 (4)

1000 (overflow)

- Example 4

1010 (-6)

0100 (overflow)

Example

- example: 011011SHL 110110SHR 001101CiL 110110CiR 101101ASHL OverflowASHR 001101

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