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Chapter 20. Gender Factors and Exercise. Key Concepts. amenorrhea athletic menstrual cycle irregularities (AMI) dysmenorrhea. disordered eating female athlete triad oligomenorrhea relaxin. Review Questions.

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Chapter 20 l.jpg

Chapter 20

Gender Factors and Exercise



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  • amenorrhea

  • athletic menstrual cycle irregularities (AMI)

  • dysmenorrhea

  • disordered eating

  • female athlete triad

  • oligomenorrhea

  • relaxin



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High-intensity exercise can cause hormonal disturbances in women. What are some of the physical problems that may result?

  • Delayed menarche

  • Cessation of menstruation

  • Infertility

  • Osteoporosis


What are some of the differences between men and women for the following physiological parameters l.jpg
What are some of the differences between men and women for the following physiological parameters?

  • Height:

    • men are taller

  • Weight:

    • men weigh more

  • Body composition:

    • men have less body fat and more fat-free weight

  • VO2 max:

    • women tend to have lower VO2 max values and anaerobic capabilities

  • Strength:

    • men tend to be stronger than women

  • Strength per unit of muscle mass:

    • no difference


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What effect does exercise the following physiological parameters?have on the menstrual cycle?

Intense training programs can result in

amenorrhea and other athletic menstrual

cycle irregularities (AMI).


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What effect does the menstrual cycle have on athletic performance?

There is no compelling scientific evidence that

the menstrual cycle has a general effect on

athletic performance. Individual athletes may or

may not be affected.


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Which sports are associated performance?with the female athlete triad?

  • Sports that emphasize low body weight: gymnastics, figure skating, diving, cheerleading.

  • Sports that use weight categories: horse racing, martial arts, wrestling, rowing.


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What signs of disordered eating should coaches and trainers look for?

Early signs of disordered eating include

excessive weight loss and avoidance of food,

use of laxatives and diuretics, and vomiting.


According to the meta analysis by lokey et al what is a safe exercise program for pregnant women l.jpg
According to the meta-analysis by Lokey et al., what is a safe exercise program for pregnant women?

Any program performed for about 43 minutes a

day, three times a week, with a heart rate of no

more than 144 beats per minute


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How can the stigma against weight training for women be counteracted?

  • Female role models in the weight room

  • Coeducational coaching staffs

  • Coeducational weight rooms

  • Personnel attuned to verbal and nonverbal cues so that they don’t communicate lesser expectations to female athletes than to male athletes


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What precautions should a pregnant woman take during strength training?

  • After the first trimester she should be cautious when performing heavy multijoint free weight exercise because of the increase in relaxin, which softens tendons and ligaments.

  • Pay attention to dress and environment to avoid becoming overheated.


What can coaches do to compensate for a woman s narrow shoulder width in overhead lifts l.jpg
What can coaches do to compensate for a woman’s narrow shoulder width in overhead lifts?

Pay attention to hand spacing and to the

carrying angle at the elbow


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What can coaches suggest if they are concerned about the effects of a woman’s Q-angle on weight lifting?

Tell female weight trainers to squat with a toe

forward stance


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Useful Websites effects of a woman’s Q-angle on weight lifting?


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Gender Differences in Endurance Performance and Training effects of a woman’s Q-angle on weight lifting?

http://home.hia.no/~stephens/gender.htm

The Physician and Sports Medicine: Female Athlete Triad

www.physsportsmed.com/issues/1996/07_96/smith.htm

Life Matters Medical Guidelines About Pregnancy and Exercise

http://lifematters.com/medicalinfo.html

Pregnancy and Exercise—Position Stand

www.casm-acms.org/Committees/WIISM/Pspreg.htm

The Physician and Sports Medicine: Strength Training for Females

www.physsportsmed.com/issues/1998/05may/ebben.htm


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