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RADIOLOGY. As Clinical Anatomy. E-mail: [email protected] Radiology Website: http://radiology.med.sc.edu Radiology Department: Basement of Library 733-3295. Francis Neuffer, M.D. U.S.C. School of Medicine 2009 . Speaker note. COURSE GOALS.

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As clinical anatomy

RADIOLOGY

As Clinical Anatomy

E-mail: [email protected]

Radiology Website: http://radiology.med.sc.edu

Radiology Department:

Basement of Library

733-3295

Francis Neuffer, M.D.

U.S.C. School of Medicine

2009

Speaker note


Course goals

COURSE GOALS

  • Understand basics of image generation.

  • Relate imaging to gross anatomy.

  • See clinical relationship to basic science.

  • Appreciate constraints and limitations.

  • Develop imaging vocabulary.


What is radiology

WHAT IS RADIOLOGY?

  • Medical specialty that supervises and interprets imaging studies.

  • Reports findings to referring physicians.


Radiologist role

RADIOLOGIST ROLE

  • Separate: Normal from Abnormal

  • Characterize / Describe: Abnormality

  • Determine: Extent (stage) of disease

  • Suggest: Diagnosis / Differential

  • Recommend: Further exams / follow-up


X ray

X-RAY

  • Discovered and named by

    Dr. W. C. Röentgen at

    University of Würzburg, 1895

  • Awarded first Nobel prize for physics, 1901

  • Did not patent invention


Projection vs tomographic image

PROJECTION -VS- TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGE


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FOOT

AP PROJECTION

(ANTERIOR - POSTERIOR)

RT


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LATERAL FOOT


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TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGES ARE

IN A SPECIFIC PLANE

AXIAL

CORONAL

SAGITTAL

RT

RT


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CT- HEAD

RT

CT REFERENCE FILM

Skull / brain


Radiology tools

RADIOLOGY TOOLS

X- RAY

ULTRASOUND

NUCLEAR MEDICINE

MAGNETIC RESONANCE

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY


How is imaging done

HOW IS IMAGING DONE?

  • IONIZING RADIATION

    X-ray, CT, Nuclear Medicine

  • SOUND WAVES

    Ultrasound

  • MAGNETIC FIELDS / RADIO WAVES

    Magnetic Resonance


X ray1

X- RAY

  • High Energy Photon

    --Kilo Electron Volts

  • Ionizing Radiation

  • Exposes Film / Detector

  • Projection Data


X rays plain film radiography

X-RAYSPLAIN FILM RADIOGRAPHY

  • Chest

  • Mammography

  • Abdomen

  • Spine

  • Extremities & Joints

  • Skull


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X - RAY --- FOUR BASIC DENSITIES

  • Air

  • Soft Tissue

  • Fat

  • Bone


Contrast radiography

CONTRAST RADIOGRAPHY

  • Injection, ingestion, or other placement of opaque material within the body.

  • Improves visualization and tissue separation.

  • Can demonstrate functional anatomy and pathology.


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UPPER GI--(GASTRO INTESTINAL)

STOMACH

ORAL BARIUM CONTRAST

WITHOUT CONTRAST-plain or scout film

COLON

BARIUM ENEMA

RECTAL BARIUM CONTRAST


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INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM – IVP

INTRAVENOUS IODINE CONTRAST

WITHOUT CONTRAST-plain or scout film

ARTERIOGRAM

INTRAARTERIAL IODINE CONTRAST


Computed tomography

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

  • HIGH ENERGY PHOTON

  • IONIZING RADIATION

  • EXPOSES DETECTOR

  • TOMOGRAPHIC DATA


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CT EXAMPLE

SCAN LEVEL

RT


Nuclear medicine

NUCLEAR MEDICINE

  • High Energy Photon

  • Ionizing Radiation

    --Radiopharmaceutical

  • Exposes Detector

  • Projection Data

  • Dynamic / Physiologic


Nuclear medicine examples

NUCLEAR MEDICINE EXAMPLES

  • Bone

  • Hepatobiliary

  • Renal


Ultrasound

ULTRASOUND

  • Sound Wave - high Frequency

  • No Ionizing Radiation

  • Transmitter / Receiver

  • Tomographic Data


Ultrasound examples

ULTRASOUND EXAMPLES

Gallbladder

Kidney

Obstetrics


As clinical anatomy

MAGNETIC RESONANCE

  • Hydrogen Protons In a Magnetic Field

  • Radio Wave Signal Transmission

  • No Ionizing Radiation

  • Tomographic Data


Magnetic resonance examples

RT

MAGNETIC RESONANCEEXAMPLES

  • Brain

  • Spine

  • Knee


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RADIOLOGY EVALUATION

  • Multiple Choice - Identify

  • Labeled Images

    From Digital Film Sets And

    Lecture Images


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HOSPITAL LINGO

You will hear and see these abbreviations used frequently in the

medical community.

X- Ray Plain Film Scout Film Radiograph

Computed Tomography Cat Scan CT

Nuclear Medicine Nuc Med

Ultrasound Sono Sonogram

Magnetic Resonance MR MRI


Summary

SUMMARY

  • TOMOGRAPHY- VS- PROJECTION IMAGES

  • SECTION PLANES

    AXIAL

    CORONAL

    SAGITTAL

  • IMAGE GENERATION OF:

    Nuclear Medicine

    Computed Tomography

    Ultrasound

    X-ray

    Magnetic Resonance


As clinical anatomy

OH… THE MANY USES OF

NUC MED STUDY OF A HORSE’S _____!

KING TUT

MODERN IMAGING?


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