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CHAPTER. 18. QUIT. The Muslim World Expands , 1300–1700. Chapter Overview. Time Line. The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire. 1. SECTION. MAP. Patterns of Change: Cultural Blending. 2. SECTION. The Mughals Establish an Empire in India. 3. SECTION. GRAPH. Visual Summary. CHAPTER. 18.

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The Muslim World Expands , 1300–1700

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CHAPTER

18

QUIT

The Muslim World

Expands, 1300–1700

Chapter Overview

Time Line

The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire

1

SECTION

MAP

Patterns of Change: Cultural Blending

2

SECTION

The Mughals Establish an Empire in India

3

SECTION

GRAPH

Visual Summary


CHAPTER

18

Chapter Overview

HOME

The Muslim World

Expands, 1300–1700

Between the 14th and the 16th centuries, three powerful Islamic empires emerge between India and the Balkans. The Ottomans of Turkey, the Safavids of Persia, and the Mughals of India successfully deal with ethnic, cultural, and religious diversity, but eventually fall prey to internal corruption and external pressure.


CHAPTER

18

1700

1300

HOME

The Muslim World

Expands, 1300–1700

Time Line

1300Osman founds Ottoman state.

1453Ottomans capture Constantinople.

1631Shah Jahan orders construction of Taj Mahal.

1526Babur founds Mughal Empire.

1587Shah Abbas rules Safavid Empire.

1398Timur the Lame destroys Delhi.

1501Safavids conquer Persia.


1

HOME

The Ottomans Build

a Vast Empire

MAP

Key Idea

Turkish religious warriors along the Byzantine frontier capture Constantinople and build an enduring empire. Their realm combines elements from many cultures and religions and eventually stretches from the Balkans to North Africa and Persia.

Overview

Assessment


1

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

The Ottomans Build

a Vast Empire

MAP

Overview

•ghazi

•Osman

•Timur the Lame

•Mehmet II

•Suleiman the Lawgiver

•janissary

•devshirme

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

The Ottomans established a Muslim empire that combined many cultures and lasted for more than 600 years.

Many modern societies—from Algeria to the Balkan countries—had their origins under Ottoman rule.

Assessment


1

1

Section

Assessment

Ottoman Ruler

Major Accomplishment

HOME

The Ottomans Build

a Vast Empire

MAP

1. List the main rulers of the Ottoman Empire and their chief accomplishments.

Osman

Establishes Ottoman state

Murad II

Expands empire

Mehmet II

Conquers Constantinople

Selim the Grim

Defeats Safavids and captures Islamic holy cities

Suleiman I

Unifies and expands empire

Selim II

Loses the Battle of Lepanto

continued . . .


1

HOME

The Ottomans Build

a Vast Empire

MAP

1

Section

Assessment

2. Do you think that the Ottomans were wise in staffing their military and government with slaves? Why or why not?THINK ABOUT

•the loyalty of slaves to the sultan

•the training slaves received

•others who might have served in the government

ANSWER

Yes—Slaves received excellent education and training and had the chance to rise to high positions; they were loyal to the sultan.

No—Slaves were forcibly taken from their homes and would be alert for opportunities to rebel or escape from the palace.

Possible Responses:

continued . . .


1

HOME

The Ottomans Build

a Vast Empire

MAP

1

Section

Assessment

3. Do you think that Suleiman’s religious tolerance helped or hurt the Ottoman Empire? Explain.

THINK ABOUT

•Suleiman’s treatment of non-Muslims

•the effect on the individual religious groups

•the long-term effect on the empire as a whole

ANSWER

Helped—kept people of various religions happy

Hurt—did not encourage people to think of themselves as part of one Ottoman nation

Possible Responses:

End of Section 1


2

PATTERNS

OF CHANGE

HOME

Cultural Blending

CASE STUDY: The Safavid Empire

Key Idea

Interactions among diverse people in the Islamic world give rise to a new cultural mix. The Safavids draw on Shi’a religious ideology, ancient Persian traditions, and Ottoman political ideas to forge a new Persian culture.

Overview

Assessment


PATTERNS

OF CHANGE

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Cultural Blending

2

CASE STUDY: The Safavid Empire

Overview

•Safavid

•Isma’il

•Shah Abbas

•Isfahan

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Many world cultures incorporate influences from various peoples and traditions.

Modern Iran, which plays a key role in global politics, is descended from the culturally diverse Safavid Empire.

Assessment


2

PATTERNS

OF CHANGE

Events

Effect

Powerful Safavid Empire

HOME

Cultural Blending

CASE STUDY: The Safavid Empire

2

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the events that enabled the Safavids to build a powerful empire.

Shi’ism becomes state religion.

Isma’il builds a powerful army.

Isma’il expands the empire.

Trade, industry, and art flourish.

Shah Abbas reforms military, society, and government.

continued . . .


2

PATTERNS

OF CHANGE

HOME

Cultural Blending

CASE STUDY: The Safavid Empire

2

Section

Assessment

2. Within a century after the Safavids adopted Shi’a Islam, their leader, Isma’il, became a religious tyrant. Why might he have become so intolerant?THINK ABOUT

•the persecution of Safavids by Ottoman Sunni Muslims

•the role of religion in Safavid life

•the geographic location of the Safavid Empire

ANSWER

Because the Sunni persecuted Shi’a, Isma’il wanted to strengthen Shi’ism and spread it throughout the empire. He may have believed that this was the only way to overcome Sunni opposition in Iran and from the Ottomans.

Possible Response:

End of Section 2


3

HOME

The Mughals Establish

an Empire in India

GRAPH

Key Idea

The Mughals, Sunni Muslim Turks from Central Asia, conquer India and bring together Turks, Persians, and Indians in a vast empire.

Overview

Assessment


3

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

The Mughals Establish

an Empire in India

GRAPH

Overview

•Mughal

•Babur

•Akbar

•Jahangir

•Nur Jahan

•Sikh

•Shah Jahan

•Taj Mahal

•Aurangzeb

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

The Mughal Empire brought Turks, Persians, and Indians together in a vast empire.

The legacy of great art and deep social division left by the Mughal Empire still influences southern Asia.

Assessment


3

+

Jahangir /

Nur Jahan

Babur

Akbar

Shah Jahan

Aurangzeb

-

HOME

The Mughals Establish

an Empire in India

GRAPH

3

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Indicate the effects each leader below had on the Mughal Empire. Include both positive and negative effects in your answer.

Babur expanded the empire.

Akbar left a better government and a flowering of culture.

Jahangir and Nur Jahan sparked religious conflict with the Sikhs.

Shah Jahan made life difficult for Hindus.

continued . . .

Aurangzeb waged costly wars.


3

HOME

The Mughals Establish

an Empire in India

GRAPH

3

Section

Assessment

2. In what ways was the golden age of Akbar similar to and different from the flowering of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas and of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman I?THINK ABOUT

•the rulers’ cultural and military achievements

•their tolerance of other cultures

•their successors

ANSWER

Similar—Governmental reform, cultural blending and flowering, military leadership

Different—Akbar didn’t murder his sons.

Possible Responses:

continued . . .


3

HOME

The Mughals Establish

an Empire in India

GRAPH

3

Section

Assessment

3. Do you think Shah Jahan made good use of his power and authority? Why or why not?THINK ABOUT

•how Shah Jahan came to power

•the beautiful buildings he built

•conditions in India during his reign

ANSWER

Yes—Shah Jahan kept the empire together and built magnificent buildings that reflected the empire’s glory.

No—He turned his back on his suffering people while constructing beautiful buildings, living extravagantly, and pursuing war.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 3


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