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1. SETTING (ST). The time and place of action of a story. 2. CHARACTER SKETCH (NF). A shorter piece of literature that highlights a certain personality trait. 3. PROTAGONIST (CH). The central character or hero in a narrative or drama. The person whose conflict sets the plot in motion.

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1 setting st l.jpg
1. SETTING (ST)

  • The time and place of action of a story


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2. CHARACTER SKETCH (NF)

  • A shorter piece of literature that highlights a certain personality trait


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3. PROTAGONIST (CH)

  • The central character or hero in a narrative or drama. The person whose conflict sets the plot in motion.


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4. ANTAGONIST (CH)

  • The principal character, force, or obstacle in opposition to the protagonist of a narrative or drama


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5. STATIC CHARACTER (CH)

  • A main character who remains the same as the plot unfolds


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6. DYNAMIC CHARACTER (CH)

  • A main character who undergoes changes as the plot unfolds


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7. FLAT CHARACTER (CH)

  • Characters who are described more simply than others


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8. ROUND CHARACTER (CH)

  • A character whose many personality traits are revealed by the author


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9. DIALECT – (D)

  • A form of language as it is spoken in a particular geographic area or by a particular social or ethnic group

  • PA and “Awhile”


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10. POINT OF VIEW (ST)

  • The method of narrating a short story, novel, narrative poem, or work of non-fiction


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11. 1st PERSON P.O.V. (ST)

  • The narrator is a character in the story and uses the pronouns I, me, and my

  • EX: “As my granddaughter walked toward my house, I feared for her safety…”


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12. 3rd PERSON OMNISCIENT P.O.V. (ST)

  • “All knowing” point of view; the narrator telling the story knows everything there is to know about the characters and their problems. Ex: “Once Upon a Time…”


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13. 3rd PERSON LIMITED P.O.V. (ST)

  • The narrator is someone outside the action who tells only what one character thinks, feels, and observes. Characters are referred to by name or by the pronouns he, she, they

  • Ex: “As LRRH walked through the forest, she began to get scared…


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14. SIMILE (FL)

  • A comparison between two unlike things using the connective words like, as, than, or resembles

  • Ex: Her cheeks were as red as apples


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15. METAPHOR (FL)

  • A direct comparison between two unlike things in which one thing becomes the other thing without using the connective word like, as, than, or resembles

  • Ex: Her cheeks were apples.


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16. SHORT STORY (NF)

  • A piece of literature generally having one main conflict that involves the characters, keeps the story moving, and makes it interesting.

  • Short stories are much shorter than novels and can usually be read in one sitting.


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17. NARRATOR (ST)

  • The character or voice from whose point of view events are told


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18.CONFLICT (PS)

A struggle or clash between opposing characters, or between opposing forces.


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19. INTERNAL CONFLICT (PS)

  • A conflict that takes place within a character’s own mind; a struggle between opposing needs, desires, or emotions within a single person.


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20. EXTERNAL CONFLICT (PS)

  • A conflict in which a character struggles against some outside force: another character, society as a whole, or a natural force.


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21. PLOT (ST)

  • The sequence of events in a story


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22. NARRATIVE HOOK / INITIATING ACTION (PS)

  • The technique the author uses to “hook” readers and get them interested in the plot of the story right away


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23. EXPOSITION (PS)

  • The early part of a story’s plot that sets the tone, establishes the setting, introduces the characters and their conflicts, and gives the reader important background information


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24. RISING ACTION (PS)

  • The action and events in a story that move the plot along by adding complications or expanding the conflict

  • Usually builds suspense to a climax as the characters take steps to resolve the conflict


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25. CLIMAX (PS)

  • The key scene or turning point in a story when a dramatic event happens that will change the outcome of the conflict/story.


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26. FALLING ACTION (PS)

  • Events or actions that occur after the story’s climax which tie up loose ends and lead to the resolution/denouement of the story.


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27.RESOLUTION/DENOUEMENT (PS)

  • The final part of a story in which the conflicts are solved and the story is “closed.”


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28. PERSONIFICATION (FL)

  • A special kind of metaphor in which a non-human thing or quality is talked about as if it were human

  • Ex: The desks screamed out in pain.


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29. HYPERBOLE (D)

  • An extreme exaggeration

  • EX: I am so hungry I could eat a horse!


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30. DIALOGUE (D)

  • Conversation that takes place between two characters

  • Look for “…”


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31. TONE – (SD)

  • The attitude an author takes toward a subject or character

  • Think: tone of voice!


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32. STYLE – (D)

  • The way in which an author chooses to write

  • Think: Fashion and outfits


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33. ALLUSION (FL)

  • A reference to a statement, person, place, event, or thing that is known from literature, history, religion, myth, politics, sports, science, or pop culture


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34. SYMBOLISM (FL)

  • A symbol is a person, a place, an activity, or an object that stands for something beyond itself

  • EX: American flag, bald eagle


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35. FORESHADOWING (ST)

  • The use of clues to hint at events that will occur later in the plot


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36. IRONY (D)

  • A special kind of contrast between appearance and reality – usually one in which reality is the opposite from what it seems


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37. VERBAL IRONY (D)

  • Verbal irony occurs when someone knowingly exaggerates or says one thing to mean another

  • EX: “There’s nothing like piles of homework to brighten your weekend!”


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38. SITUATIONAL IRONY (D)

  • Situational irony is the contrast between what a reader or character expects and what actually exists or happens

  • EX: A snow plow stuck in the snow, a police station getting robbed, a firehouse burning down


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39. DRAMATIC IRONY (D)

  • When the audience or the reader knows something important that a character in a play or story does not know

  • EX: Soap operas and bad “Slasher movies”


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40. CHARACTERIZATION (CHZ)

  • Characterization is how a writer reveals character.

  • There are two types of characterization: direct and indirect.


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41. DIRECT CHARACTERIZATION (CHZ)

  • When an author uses direct characterization, he/she directly states a character’s traits.

  • Example: “He was a tall man past middle age, for his hair was a vivid white; but his thick eyebrows and pointed military mustache were as black as the night from which Rainsford had come” (Connell 44). ~ Zaroff

  • No interpretation necessary!


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42. INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION (CHZ)

  • When an author uses indirect characterization, it is up to the reader to draw conclusions about characters based on indirect information.

  • Five Ways: speech, appearance, actions, internal thoughts, what other characters think

  • Example: “…and his smile showed red lips and pointed teeth” (Connell 45). – Zaroff


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Characterization Continued

  • Red lips and pointed teeth? Hmm…that is not normal!

  • Sounds like Connell is indirectly describing General Zaroff as being vampire-like!


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