The effects of motherhood on wages and labor force participation: evidence for Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Claudia Piras and Laura Ripani Claudiapi@iadb.org and email@example.com SDS / WID. Schedule. Introduction Empirical issues about gender wage differentials Motivation
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The effects of motherhood on wages and labor force participation: evidence for Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru
Claudia Piras and Laura Ripani
SDS / WID
1) Mothers spend more time at home caring for children, interrupting their experience and seniority, or at least interrupting full-time employment (human capital or labor supply explanation)
2) Mothers may choose jobs that trade off higher wages for some aspect of “mother-friendliness”.
3) Mothers exert less effort (per hour) on the job to conserve effort for household production, and this would affect wages through productivity.
4) Employers discriminate against mothers, treating them worse than other women.
5) Causal effects of having children may be spurious. There is heterogeneity in who selects into motherhood on unmeasured variables (i.e. career ambition) that also affect earnings.
- 1999 Pesquisa Nacional para Amostra de Domicilios for Brazil
- 1998 Encuesta de Condiciones de Vida for Ecuador
- 1999 Encuesta Continua de Hogares for Bolivia
- 2000 Encuesta Nacional de Hogares for Peru
All these surveys are nationwide.
Only in these countries’ surveys it is clearly specified who the mothers of the kids living in the household are. There is also information about the fertility history of women 15 to 49 (or 50) years old as well as other socioeconomic characteristics.
Skepticism regarding the causal interpretation of associations between fertility and labor supply arises in part from the fact that there are strong theoretical reasons to believe that fertility and labor supply are jointly determined (endogeneity problem).
LFP by age group, marital and motherhood status
LFP by age group for Brazil and motherhood status
(no information about marital status)
LFP by age group and number of children
LFP by Occupational Category and Motherhood Status
Self-employment by Motherhood Status
Hours worked by occupational category and motherhood
LFP by Public Sector and Motherhood Status
lnWi = 1 + 1 (mother children less than 7)i + 2 (mother children between 7 and 12)i + 3 (mother children between 13 and 18)i + 1 Xi + i
lnWi = 1 + 1 (one child)i + 1 (two or more children)i + 1 Xi + i
lnWi = 2 + 1 (number of children 0 to 6)i + 2 (number of children 7 to 12)i + 3 (number of children 13 to 18)i + 2 Xi + i