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. South America – physical Eastern Highlands Central lowlands Western Highlands (Andes). Special Environments Amazon rainforest Atacama Desert . II. South American Indigenous culture A. Nazca (200BC-700AD ). B. Inca (1200-1535 AD). Arrival of Europeans A. Spanish/Portuguese

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D. Impact of colonialism

1. Best land appropriated by colonists (haciendas)

2. Land for food crops converted to cash crops (plantations)

3. Demographic decline – 90% by 1650

99% in Caribbean islands

4. Introduction of new foods, animals, technology



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III. URBANIZATION -

A. Spanish grid city

B. Modern cities


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C. Primate cities - push/pull factors

Mexico City

Brazilian favela



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  • hacienda

    • spanish institution

    • not efficient but social prestige

    • workers lived on the land

  • plantation

    • export oriented monocrops

    • imported capital and skills

    • seasonal labor

    • efficiency is key



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  • Secondary sector (manufacturing)

  • 1. Mexico and maquiladoras

  • Modern industrial plants

  • Assemble imported, duty-free components

  • Export the finished products

  • Mostly foreign-owned (U.S., Japan)

  • 80% of goods reexported to U.S.

  • Tariffs limited to value added during assembly


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  • Brazil

  • Manaus Free Trade Zone

  • Grande Carajas Project

  • Highway BR 364


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  • Tertiary sector

  • Tourism – Caribbean, Mexico

  • Positives – foreign currency, jobs, develop infrastructure

  • Negatives – “leakage,” “enclave economy,” higher cost of living, higher property values


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V. Political

A. Cuba – Castro

wet-foot dry-foot policy

Guantanamo Bay

B. Puerto Rico - Commonwealth


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